The famous "Flat Earth" woodcut originates with Flammarion's 1888 L'atmosphère: météorologie populaire (p. 163). Artist Unknown.

Time Sciences

Next to the spiritual, political and astronomical considerations there are more considerations of time. There are historical notions, chronobiological notions, psychological-mental health paradigms, sociological ideas and investigations, philosophers and philosophies dealing with the concept and more approaches from the diverse departments of science. The Order of Time endeavored to collect articles from other scientists and to present and preserve them as a whole on this site. It is a growing collection presenting an image of a general scientific concern with this essential subject of survey. Read of other sciences and offer your own science!

 To the subject of time numerous sciences have contributed with all kinds of investigations and conclusions. From this page one can surf to investigate these different subjects. There are only a few examples kept at this site as there are many more internet pages and time-sciences not listed here that are kept by other webmasters. For the latter ones is offered the time-directory of the Linking Library, the humanities internet directory of The Order of Time. Anyone missing his own internet contribution at these pages can link it directly online up from the Linking Library guestpage to be listed in the timedirectory.

See also under politics and spirituality and timeoddities of this site for more idealistic articles dealing with the psychology of time.

Go to Quotes on Time to read what the great minds of humanity have said about the subject.

N.B.: Zie onder Tijdwetenschappen voor meer artikelen in het Nederlands.


Mental Health and the Timesystem by: Drs. R.P.B.A. Meijer. A report from 1991 to P. Vroon, Professor in Experimental Psychology, about the timesystem. This report formed the basis for the dutch book 'De Spiegel van de Tijd' and the building of this website. It was also presented at the 'International Conference on Health and Spirituality' at Poona, India sept 1992.


Impatient Pendulum by D. H. (Long Now Foundation): Some thoughts about the reality of modern timing: the author complains of having lost his bearings with the traditional order and dreams of a clock that defines the Now connecting the motions of celestial bodies to mundane calendars.

Social Science

Cultural Studies as Geisteswissenschaften? Time, Objectivity, and the Future of Social Science by R. E. L. This article discusses the importance of the cultural studies as a discipline of the personalistic interst and the historical aspect of time necessary as a counterweigth to the impersonalistic and non-historical view of time of the natural sciences. It urges to understand the social sciences as equally objective and of life-important relevance to our kowledge of the past and control over the future.


Times of our Lives: A sociological exploration on the subject of Time with the thesis that most of the times of our lives have a cyclical quality.This two-part lengthy article takes the reader just about everywhere, from circadian rhythms to the implications of historical ignorance. Taken from Professor M. C. K.'s "A Sociological Tour Through Cyberspace" Department of Sociology & Anthropology, Trinity University,Texas.


Cybertime, Cyberspace and Cyberlaw by M.E.K.: "Cybertime does not remove or replace clocktime; yet it too may place a novel set of interactions with time on top of a temporal model that we assume is part of the fixed natural order, rather than a changeable culture." par 26. This article links the concept of time to the concept of law and proposes a serious concern about the possible consequences of cybertime.


Time.(by: G. J. W. Imperial College of Science and Technology).This article stresses the importance of observer dependent timing as a consequence of the modern revision of the concept of time.


 A Walk Through Time - This article describes the history of time-keeping from the perspective of arriving at a reliable clock. By NIST , National Institute of Standards and Technology, the keepers of atomic time.


An Integral Theory of Consciousness by K. W. A renown consciousness-researcher explains on the different sciences involved in the concept of consciousness and its multi-dimensionality.


The Spectrum of consciousness: Integral psychology and the Perennial Philosophy. Chapter 1 from: The Eye of The Spirit By K.W. . This article describes the so called Human Consciousness Project, a "master template" of the various stages, structures, and states of consciousness reflecting the "Perennial Philosophy" of mankind consisting of variations of the world's great wisdom traditions. (compare: "The Game of Order"). To the possible corruption of this 'holarchy' does the author suggest not to get rid of holarchy per se, but to arrest (and integrate) their arrogant 'holons' in order to overcome the historic and collective derailment in our modern psychology.


Apollo and Dionysus: From Warfare to Assimilation in The Birth of Tragedy and Beyond Good and Evil. BY B.B. 'Accepting and transforming Apollo's essential weapon, Dionysus is able to say through the philosopher - and which mask he wears, we cannot say - : "with so tense a bow we can now shoot for the most distant goals."


Worldbook on Time &Calendars: a brief historical overview of the different timecalender-systems of the different worldcultures. ( Worldbook is a multimedia encyplopedia).


Time and its role in the history of thought and action (taken from the Encyclopedia Britannica). This article discusses the history of thought about Time distinguishing process-philosophers and philosopers of the manifold, philosphers of everlasting life and philosophers of rebirth in the flow of time. The prescietific conception of the individual experience of reality to time and timelessness is pictured as a groundfor the division between holders of the cyclic view and holders of the one-way view of time. Despite of the original Western religious one way concept, the cyclic aspect of time has , this article maintains, gained adherents. With the Greeks the alternating between love and strife (our Ying & Yang) opposing the denial of motion and plurality suggested the flow of time as the essence of reality. Christian one-way thinking is thereto recognized as apocalyptic leading to crisis and collapse also described in modern social theory. Modern scientific concepts are described as making systems remaining constant through time, leading to another kind of metaphysics.


 A Brief History of Time From Thales to Callippus by C. W. : A brief overview of the history of our western time management. From the perspective of the ancient greek philosophers are so issues discussed in the development of our modern time-awareness. With the old philosophers setting the foundation for the modern understanding of chronology is explained that much depended on a calendar correct for agricultural purposes.

Medical Psychology:

Drugs, addiction and control: By R.M.Reasoning from the movie The Insider the issue of soft-drug habituation is discussed in the light of a primordial predator-neurosis that would obscure our consciousness and conscience of nature and the needed human values to get out of the dark of drug-buse, political indecision and legal warfare against citizens. The conclusion is that from confidential knowledge one must manage to cure from the neurosis and that legally one should aknowledge the physician as the authority in matters of legal drug-use.Alien Frequencies and Aids

Alien Frequencies and Aids by R.M. This article stresses the importance of being alert to the themes presented by movies that constitute analytic material as warning signals to - in this article- an absence of relativity in our respect of time. The fear of alien frequencies and a cure againsrt being infected with the HIV-virus is discussed to the example of an s.f. movie.


eTime: The Need for a Cybertime Epoch. By Dr. J. P. S. (Professor at the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad). Based on a review of the Concept of Time in Philosophy, Physics, Biology and Psychology, the paper argues that developments in Cyber-connectivity highlight the absurdity of treating Time and space as a unitary dimension. The paper also examines various measures of time currently available and argues that none of the measures meet the needs of commerce and law for transactions carried out in the cyberspace. It suggests that cyber connectivity presents a unique opportunity to the scientific world to de-link Time from Space and free it from the Geo-link. It therefore suggests that a new measure of the time and epoch, called eTime be introduced to fulfil the need for a Cybertime epoch. The paper further suggests that the assumed zero of eTime should either be the origin of the concept of cyberspace by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency or the epoch of signing 'A Declaration of Independence of Cyberspace', i.e. Fri, Feb 9, 1996 17:16:35 +0100 at Davos, Switzerland.


Bhagavad Gîta and Management by: M.P.B. (retired Chief Technical Examiner to the Goverment of Kerala in India)

Management of time is a systematic way of doing all activities in any field of human effort. The westem management thought of prosperity to some for some time has absolutely failed in its aim to ensure betterment of individual life and social welfare. The despondent position of Arjuna in the first chapter of the Gita is typical for this human situation which may come in the life of all men of action some time or other. Lord Krishna in the Gîta advises how to manage for a better time. His Time.'


A Small Philosophy of Association by: A.M (psychologist/webmaster)

One can unite in the private sphere with a marriage, to a job with a contract of labor, in the political with a political party and in the spirit with a religion. But what exactly would the philosophy of all that association be? How are all those associations themselves there as one culture, what holds us back and confuses us in finding association and would there be something like a general order of association? Or what would in association be the interest of the personal in contrast with the impersonal, what standards and values are we talking about, what is the theory and what is the practice? How does it all cohere and how is that converted into politics? This argument offers a short coherent view, a philosophy of association as a solution for this complex problem.


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