Pamphlet for a New Energy Policy




4) An invention: to think with one's hands



Paradigm means thought model, a frame of mind in which all kinds of models and theories find their explanation and method of measurement. A paradigm can thus be a certain apparatus, a certain machine, referring to certain relations of forces in nature. Thus are next to the machines of clocks and communication means, also those found of energy converters representing a certain frame of mind, a certain paradigm. If we want to succeed with this new energy paradigm of directly winning sustainable energy, are we to develop a clear, pithy wording of this paradigm, a new terminology able to explain the already old, but forgotten technical findings in an univocal manner. We will have to organize the knowledge for the sake of a collective leap forward of our world culture in relation to the nature of this planet and to the cultures - and nature also - of civilizations on other planets.
   Concerning the history of selfrunning machines was there already in the ancient vedic texts mention of heavenly vehicles called vimânas that according some descriptions could behave like flying saucers and were propelled by means of the element mercury (
see the site with the original scriptures). Also historians about the east, those of Alexander the Great, described how they, when they tried to conquer India, were attacked by flying 'fiery discs' that launched no weapons though. It was a form of technocratical deterrence of a science we are not familiar with anymore. Nowadays it are all the myths to us of a fallen culture. As early as the seventh century of our year count were there in India designs of selfrunning machines. A well known design of a with mercury filled wheel existed from the mind of the inventor of the zero in math, the indian mathematician and astronomer Bhâskara (1114 - 1185). With that design he followed in the footsteps of astronomers like Brahmagupta who before him in 624 had invented something alike and Lalla who did the same in 748. In the western world one also tried to succeed this way. Thus was there around 1235 the master-builder Villard de Honnecourt who invented a wheel that, based upon falling hammers, was supposed to be off balance all the time. And along these lines were there more attempts in Arabia and Persia. They all proved to be failing. During the Renaissance tried the architect and master-builder Francisco di Georgio (1439-1502) it again with water. It were all nice drawings, but no working machines. After him described the English physicist and mystic Robert Fludd (1474-1534) as well such a water machine, but he personally denounced it as an unworkable concept.

Leonardo's designs for a perpetuum mobile.


In that time and age was also a celebrity like Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) designing free energy machines. Da Vinci drew a mechanism that would run on gravity alone: he presented the perpetuum mobile as an artistic accomplishment without expecting any energy gain from it (see also a modern alternative). Thereto he also thought to have delivered the proof of the impossibility of these machines. Nevertheless tried many after him. Notorious are the efforts of the never fully clarified experiments of Johann Ernst Elias Bessler (1680-1745) who coded his secrets, that he tried to sell for large sums, in such a way that up to the present day one hasn't been able to decipher them. Was he really a con man? We're not entirely sure (see further the work of John Collins and Prof. Alfred Evert and a description of the history of the perpetuum mobile). The first model that really worked was a clock made by James Cox in collaboration with John Joseph Merlin in 1760. He designed a self-running clock which kept running based upon harnessing natural changes in air pressure. The concept was already known in 1610 from Cornelis Drebble and there are also modern versions of the contraption. But the system does not count really for a selfrunning perpetuum mobile because it makes use of forces like the natural changes of air pressure and temperature from outside the system. Otherwise would a thermometer and a barometer also qualify as perpetuum mobiles.
   These days there are still people like
Scott. F. Hall, Chas Campbell, Bob Kostoff, and many other unknown people (see video 1 & 2, documentary)engaged in the quest for the ideal gravity machine for the sake of a possible generation of energy. In Syria was there since 1967 from Haroutioun Karramanoukian from Aleppo in Syria an engagement with a gravity wheel named the G-force Kara green Energy machine for which patents have been awarded since 1992 in 20 European countries (EP1712786). The device consists of asymmetrical on a wheel mounted levers that mechanically and hydraulically 'neutralize gravity' and thus deliver a machine capable of producing up to 5 Mw of electric power. On a video we see a noisy, hydraulic puffing machine of three meters high that, so one says, runs for 24 hours a day on its own without any external input. The inventor claims that he since 2005 is capable of delivering custom made units according the local need for energy. There is no information about replications (video, info page 1, site; see also the work at the so-called arabian wheel and the FR 2745857 patent of Aldo Costa - info). We even found a patent awarded in 2001 in China: a gravity wheel operating on bouncing weights. Inventor: Yng-Lang Lin from Taipei, Taiwan. Whether the thing really works is not known (see picture to the right, page). It even seems to be so that the artist Reidar Finsrud from Norway since 1984 with the precision and patience of a watch maker has built a working specimen that now since the 28th of April 1996 is running based upon three normal pendulums around a central so-called chaos pendulum (a pendulum in unrest above a chaotic magnetic field). Together they keep a 2 inch steel ball of about 1 kilo running in circles on a waving double bicycle rim track with the help of three horse shoe magnets that are attached to the pendulums and three mutually in a triangle vibrating round magnets that are connected to the central pendulum (see also video, a discussion, an article by Stefan Marinov, our analysis). The constant energy of the rolling ball in relation to the friction within the system by far exceeds the incidentally added energy that is needed to start up the system. Once in a few days the system stops and has to be restarted by hand. The device standing uncovered has to be dusted so now and then and thus is it positioned in a show case, so explains the inventor. Also must, so it seems, so now and then the machine be dismantled in order to realign the chaos magnets in the resin of the base: they slowly come loose. Thus there is a duty of maintenance. A mechanical system which this way any how is 99.99% efficient while one based on normal mechanics may not expect more than 90%, we cannot explain just like that. When what he does is no artistic deception with a hidden drive for the pendulums - the central spring used for the vibratory unit e.g.- , has he proven that catching the free energy of the universe is possible on the basis of counterbalancing fundamental forces of nature like gravity and the force of electromagnetism. It is an hypothesis deserving further attention.
Our analysis on YouTube:


   Lord Kelvin (1824-1907), known from our temperature scale, also contributed in the history of science in this respect of the directly from nature winning of energy by means of his so-called water dripper. It is a device that with a running, dripping stream of water led through a conductive ring with an opposing pole produces an electric potential of 10-15.000 volts (!) (see video 1 & 2). With that invention he proved that falling water ionizes the air and that there is a relationship between a gravity phenomenon like falling water and electricity (see also demo video). In this context did Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) research to the nature of static electricity and natural lightening, from which e.g. his invention of the, after him by Tesla corrected, theoretical description of the lightening rod was presented. Later on there we more inventions during the time that the energy policy had appeared on the political agenda with the control over energy sources like oil, gas and coal and the electricity that was generated from them. In 1865 formulated James Clerk Maxwell the twenty laws of electrodynamics, the electric current. With that progress in knowledge were there half way the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century, many people like Michael Faraday, A. Graham Bell, Nikola Tesla, Guglielmo Marconi, George Westinghouse, Ernst Werner von Siemens and Thomas A. Edison who came up with inventions of an electrotechnical nature. But those inventions which derived electricity from the sky or from the earth disappeared quickly into the background because one couldn't put a meter on it in order to charge customers for their use. Early pioneers of free energy were quickly taken for classical perpetuum mobile cheaters and claims for patents of that kind are till the present day consequently denied by most of the patent offices in the world.

    Thus was there, the before mentioned, controversial person of John Ernst Worrel Keely (1827-1898) who contrary to his contemporaries plainly stated that he had developed 'ether technology'. A famous statement of him from 1892 is: "There is no dividing of matter and force into two distinct terms, as they both are one. Force is liberated matter. Matter is force in bondage. Matter is bound up energy and energy is liberated matter". His science can be best described with the term sympathetic vibratory physics. It was founded on the notion that vibrations in the ether could make a machine work. And that sounds not so strange at all when we consult Tesla on this. It was peculiar though that he engaged sound vibrations from the outside for that purpose. In his demonstrations shows he how by sound vibrations of musical instruments his machines started up and could be maintained in operation. He even had a device that with the help of sound could lift a nine ounce heavy steel ball for thirty centimeters and more things like that. The mechanism is called induction resonance. In 1890 he declared he was close to a breakthrough: his "liberator", with the help of which he transformed sound vibrations into energy, would disintegrate the air and unleash an ethereal force that with one liter of water would deliver enough energy to transport a complete series of railroad cars from Philadelphia to San Francisco. As we shall see below, has it indeed turned out to be possible to gain energy with the help of water. Was he in his time now a cheater who profited from the success of his famous contemporaries, or was he just a great inspirer and guru of technical and theoretical innovation standing at the cradle of modern free energy technologies? Some of his ideas later turned out to be viable as e.g. disintegration of mass under the influence of standing waves. He was not a theoretical physicist, but he did draft, based upon his research in this respect, a law of disintegration which led to the finding that water disintegrates under the influence of a dissociation frequency of 2.742 Hz (5.5 and 6.5 times the frequency of resp. oxygen and hydrogen). Keely listed forty laws and this was the 34th: the Law of Atomic Dissociation: "Overtones of high rad-energy pitches produce separation of the atomoles and recombinations among the atomolic molecules of the atoms." Keely in his time gathered a large crowd of followers - and therewith also financiers - and is till the present day honored with websites carrying his name (see site 1 and 2). After his death - he was in 1898 hit by a street car - was his workshop investigated and discovered one in his cellar, so it is stated, a hydraulic system that with hidden pneumatic pipes ran through the entirety of his house and purportedly would have driven his engines. He had never allowed more than superficial inspections during his lifetime and had always refused to cooperate with Edison or Tesla, and declined all offerings for the commercial exploit of his inventions. After he died could none of his followers directly reproduce his machines and effects (a model of his machine can still be found in the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, the place where he lived).
     Recently though are there researchers inspired by Keely, viz. Joe Maclain and Norman Wootan, who engaged in research after the notion of winning overunity energy from resonating matter and they have on that basis built a so-called
Magnetic Resonance Amplifier (see also report). Also were there by the researcher Dale Pond constructed partially successful replications of Keely's so-called dynaspheres, rotation devices in which he with his sympathetic vibrations created a 'neutral center' in order to catch the vibrations of the natural ether and thus realize an ever continuing rotation (see articles, replications and essays by Dale Pond, and the discussion at the Peswiki-page). Contrary to the indications of Keely's deceit are there thus still many voices of a great respect that state that he is a misunderstood genius discredited by the aggressive energy lobby of his time that, just as with Tesla in those days, would take interest in blocking him in his science endeavors that would constitute a threat to their business interest in coal, the electricity that for the first time was won in those days and lamp oil. The second industrial revolution was about to take place.
    But was Keely really a con-man? The hydraulic system was there for real, no doubt about that, but any proof that his machines would have been driven by it is lacking. The answer in Keely's defense to this says that the secret is found in the tone generation that Keely needed. That generation of sound had to be constant and therefore he needed pressured air. The device used for it in his time is called the
Wind Chest of Roedolf Koenig. There was no other possibility in his time, there were no loudspeakers and amplifiers yet. To a friend who once asked him by what epithet he would like to be remembered, said he "the greatest humbug of the 19th century." For he had been constructing toys rather than real energy machines, thus concludes Keely-specialist Hans von Lieven at his website. In that sense he did create false hopes. So, yes, he did lead people in the wrong direction, but in any case was he someone who with a remarkably good intuition is still inspiring scientists today, and also is he someone who gave hope for a better controlled world. He also managed to draw the attention of people in the realm of spirituality. H.P. Blavatski said about him in her Secret Doctrine: "What Mr. Keely has already done is grand and wonderful in the extreme; there is enough work before him in the demonstration of his new system to "humble the pride of those scientists who are materialistic, by revealing those mysteries which lie behind the world of matter, without revealing it nolens volens to all." (Vol. 1, Page  563   A Premature Discovery). Even when he didn't invent the free energy machine, antigravitation and disintegration based upon vibrations, as we shall see later on an effect also known in the free energy department, then stood he certainly at the cradle of the postmodern theater of free energy innovations about it which give people time and again new hopes and incentives for a scientific, political and social breakthrough of an idealism that must save our world with concrete mechanical successes in the sphere of a direct winning of sustainable energy.
    And if there was no real cheating on his part with him indeed being a misunderstood genius the way it possibly was with many before him, after him and in the future will be, then it is certain that with defiling him and others ignorance was created and also chaos in the social and scientific respect for essential innovations and that thus many real physical effects and phenomena have not, or hardly, been investigated, understood and remembered. And with that must we now inevitably full of illusion as ignorant people have a wrong notion of reality. What would be to the advantage of humanity: give con-men the benefit of the doubt so that they automatically see it coming around, but still do discover that one genius among them, or else reject everyone who steps outside the usual framework with his/her original research? The first option accepted with caution seems to be the wisest, for we mustn't miss the opportunity for success and throw children away with bathing water. Therefore do we in this pamphlet plead in favor of further investigations with some more theorizing and scientific and social integration.
    As far as there was any scientific and socioeconomic recognition in the nineteenth and also twentieth century for new effects and special coherences in physics, were those insights in a number of cases undoubtedly part of political and military agendas in which the findings were used for developing weapons and thus had to be kept secret for the wider public and the 'enemy' who couldn't see the technology engaged for peaceful purposes. Especially inventions of free energy machines that did something with the forcefield of the earth and of space, we now know to be historically true, were treated with repression. Tom Bearden, who did a lot of research in this area, stated to this: "
There is suppression launched against any free-energy inventor who succeeds or is very close to succeeding." (see also Ken MacNeill 1983). There is no doubt also a certain psychology of repression at hand when one is faced with essential innovations in general. E.g. at the beginning of the 21th century we still make no use of clocks running to the rhythm of the sun, even though we have the technology to realize them as well as a science that states that simultaneity the way we live it with time zones and mean times is factually something abject. To be attached to old and familiar matters is a well-known and even in the sacred scriptures of the world extensively described, classical enemy of personal and collective progress. Many so-called modern scientists deny at the beginning of the twenty-first century the possibility of directly handling the magnetism of the earth, (anti-)gravity, the vacuum and assorted forms of free in nature available energy. Nevertheless are there today many methods to win directly electrical energy from nature by means of magnetism, (anti)gravity and vacuum energy. The perpetuum mobile or, better stated, the thermodynamically open system of the directly operating energy transformer which bases itself upon the kinetic property of vacuum fluctuations, is therewith slowly becoming a common place cultural fact, so also confirms the Zero Point Energy-researcher Tom Valone of the Integrity Research Institute, be it that the purely mechanical version of a mechanical ether mill around 2008 not yet convincingly has been demonstrated, that is to say as well being replicable as open to scientific scrutiny. But we are very close, as we shall see. That zeropoint energy is for real has in any case already scientifically been proven by means of, among other things, the so-called Casimir-effect (the energetic effect between plates at molecular distances) and the not freezing of Helium at the absolute temperature of zero. From this proof is the law of conservation of energy that always stood for a counter argument in the question of free energy no longer applicable. It are rather the in our modern society extant spirit of competition and the with the time system paradigmatically determined ignorance that are not just like that accepting, able to promote, able to keep up with or even acknowledge this kind of progress in a socioeconomic and educational sense. But the internet offers us unexpectedly now an opportunity to develop an overview of this new area of science which in so many respects is still in its infancy and for that reason often with much disdain is shunned by the proud literatures of professional magazines. Thus are we in the realm of the free, not on the established institutions depending, provision of information able to recover from the damage done by the repressive policies in the past and present that hindered our cultural progress and which now, so it turns out, constitutes a threat to our survival on this planet.

A nice attempt at organizing matters in this field was around 2007 offered by the sites theverylastpageoftheinternet.com, peswiki.org (pureenergysystems.com), rexresearch.com and pancea-bocaf.org. The last mentioned site speaks of at least 200 inventors and a number of 3000 patents in the sphere of alternative energy management which were sometimes bought by the establishment, have been intimidated to stop, that couldn't obtain a patent, that are suppressed, threatened, silenced or ignored, that wither way on a basis of lacking funds, or differently are marked as being unwanted, as fraudulent, or as threatening (see also an overview of awarded patents). They made a division of the types of inventions in this field (see also A Practical Guide to 'Free Energy' devices door Patrick C. Kelly). Concerning machine applications is there according them mention of inventions in the field of electrostatic, electronic and electromagnetic machines and machines making use of permanent magnets. Next to that are there also machines relying upon purely mechanical systems of rotation. The original inventions of directly winning energy among them and of which we found proofs, demonstrations and discussions on the internet concern among others the next inventions:

- The orgonaccumulator machine of the former collaborator of Freud, Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957), which, as a violation of the second law of thermodynamics, in 1940 was investigated by Einstein and was denied as a viable option of alternative energy and together with other orgone energy machines was confiscated and destroyed by the American government after he died. Wilhelm Reich built next to the, as said, from organic and inorganic materials composed boxes, that from the heat difference of the warmth they attracted thus in principle could generate an electric potential, also from grounded and closely positioned steel tubes with crystals - and that was all there was to it - so-called cloudbusters by means of which he drove apart or brought together formations of clouds and, to his own amazement, attracted flying saucers (!). Also built he, presently still used, therapeutic energy boxes and such in which people could sit to heal (see also resonance therapy). He died in America in prison of a heart attack after having been incarcerated by a judge who had accused him of 'illegal transport of accumulators'. Undoubtedly were more matters motivating this decision of condemning Reich in those days for he cherished also communistic sympathies and controversial ideas about sexuality (see also definition, lecture, design, site, a skeptical review, and the wikipage about it).
- The inventions of Nikola Tesla (site 1 & 2) e.g. in the field of free energy or what he called radiant energy, are now mostly denied by the scientific community (see article). He is mainly known for being the greatest inventor of all times. He invented the alternating current and the radio (in 1935 were Marconi's claims refuted by law) and his name is honored by science with the formal symbol for a magnetic field: the tesla (T). But there is a lack of source materials, partly because of the fact that in 1895 his laboratory in New York burned down with all his work and documents. He suffered from a severe depression afterwards. Then, around 1900, he reconstructed his work and laid that down in a book called Colorado Springs Notes, 1899-1900 (online). In 1919 he wrote his autobiography called 'My inventions' (see also his biography by J.J. O'Neil). A famous quote from Tesla concerning the direct winning of energy is: "Electric power is everywhere present in unlimited quantities and can drive the world's machinery without the need of coal, oil, gas, or any other of the common fuels."   He further stated: "One day man will connect his apparatus to the very wheel work of the universe... and the very forces that motivate the planets in their orbits and cause them to rotate will rotate his own machinery". In 1891 he said: "Throughout space there is an energy. Is this energy static or kinetic? If static our hopes are in vain. if kinetic, and we know for certain it is, then it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the wheelwork of, nature. Many generations may pass, but in time our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point in the universe." Tesla called the energy from space cosmic radiation. According his notion forms the radiant energy of space a potential around the earth because the higher layers of the ionosphere block the positively charged particles. Thus could there be a potential of some 360.000 volts in the atmosphere. He spoke of particles, 'neutrons' he thought, that were faster than light. The principle of his invention, which he patented in 1901 and named an (U.S. 685957 ) "Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy", he described as follows: "Stick an antenna up in the air, the higher the better, and wire it to one side of a capacitor, the other going to a good earth ground, and the potential difference will then charge the capacitor. Connect across the capacitor some sort of switching device so that it can be discharged at rhythmic intervals, and you have an oscillating electric output". Except for the atmosphere with its positive charge, called he also the earth a "vast reservoir of negative electricity." After his death was his work, as said, for a greater part confiscated and declared classified because he, except for free available energy for everyone in the world with his energy station the Wardenclyffe Tower, also had invented a "Peace Ray", a radiation weapon. These matters had to be stopped because they constituted a threat to the economy and the national security. Thus could little of his work be replicated (see as well an article and a list of all of his american patents an his patents worldwide).
    An invention in the spirit of Tesla was the Moray Radiant Energy device of the electrotechnical engineer
Thomas Henry Moray (1892-1974) from Salt Lake City in Uthah. In the twenties of the previous century demonstrated he, following the idea of Tesla of an energetic space, a solid state free-energy detector in which a large, specially composed antenna was connected to a high voltage circuit consisting of a complex series of capacitors, transformers and semiconductors. With that setup he succeeded in producing for the duration of a couple of days about 50 kilowatts of electrical energy freely won from space. None of the expert witnesses of the time who were allowed to verify the operation of the device could detect any sign of fraud. The core piece of his invention was the so-called Moray Valve, a special diode consisting of a tube with therein sealed a compressed element composed of a mixture of triboluminescent zinc, a certain semiconductor and a radioactive element. This together attracted the energy from space and transformed it into electricity. This electricity made devices glow in the dark without developing heat and made electrical lamps burn with a whiter light. A patent was not awarded because Moray used a cold cathode, something that was unknown in those days, and because he couldn't explain where the energy came from. An assistant of him called Felix Pridgt, presumably a secret agent of the Russians, destroyed his invention with a hammer in 1939 because he was angry about the fact that Moray didn't want to give full disclosure about his invention. The invention was, except for by himself, by no one successfully replicated. Later models appear to have used rods that looked like copper and silver without any grounding or an antenna. Space was by Moray considered a sea full of vibrating particles about which he later wrote a book with the title: 'The Sea of Energy in which the Earth Floats'. He, familiar with the right frequency of vibration, succeeded as a metallurgist to create with his space diode a one-way gate for the access of that vibration of space. In a way constitutes his invention a precursor of the modern transistor. His sons John en Richard are presently still engaged in reproducing his invention (peswiki-page, research-page, article from 1956, a discussion by Thomas Bearden).
    Another successful attempt was made by the american
Edwin Gray with his doubly patented Electric Magnetic Association Motor which is the first as well successful as registered replication of Nikola Tesla's radiant energy technology. The principle boils down to the notion that when one discharges a capacitor of a high voltage a counteracting electrostatic shock of 'radiant energy' from outside the system occurs. Gray caught that energy with what he called a 'conversion element switching tube' U.S. Patent 4,595,975 which consequently produced 'cold electricity'. He named the process the 'splitting of the positive'. His invention never found its way to the market though despite of the many demonstrations and an attempt to build an electric car in 1973. In 1974 was his work confiscated on a basis of false accusations (see bio-info). Gray died in 1989 under suspect circumstances. Gray's secret, which he carefully had concealed with misleading diagrams and directions in his patents, was cracked in 2000 by Dr. Peter Lindemann who wrote a book about it: 'The Free Energy Secrets of Cold Electricity'. He himself in 2007 also designed a motor: de Lindemann Rotary Attraction Motor (see also video).
  A result comparable to Gray was achieved by his fellow american Bob Teal with his Magnipulsion Motor with the help of which he in 1972 caught the energy of collapsing electromagnetic fields and thus created overunity. He built two prototypes and achieved two patents
US 4,024,421 & US 4,093,880, but failed, despite of the publicity he attracted and the company he founded, (Magneteal Industries Inc.), to raise any further interest during his time. What he did was too beautiful. In fact was he not taken seriously (see info, articles, photo's & Video).
   Another successful attempt in reconstructing Tesla's inventions was achieved by the russian scientist named professor
Alexander Chernetsky of the Moscow Georgi Plekhanov Institute of the National Economy who built a plasma generator according Tesla's principles. Based upon a high voltage he 'polarized the vacuum ' and released thus a surplus value of five times the input. Chernetsky unexpectedly died in 1992 without anybody taking over his work (see web page, info (zip) and video).
    A more recent development similar to the self generated discharge of Chernetsky and, promising as it is, also draws attention in scientific circles, is the Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge (PAGD) of the canadian couple Paulo N. and Alexandra N. Correa, the management team of Labofex- Experimental and Applied Plasma Physics in Concord, Ontario. With a cold cathode vacuum tube are created pulsed auto-electronic emissions in a cold plasma. In the in 2006 awarded patent (
7,053,576) named energy conversion systems they speak of massless energy, that is to say Tesla-waves, vacuum energy or aether-energy, that in their Aether/Orgone motor with the help of Tesla-coils and an electronic circuit radiation free is converted into electrical or kinetic energy. The motor is capable of running a house or a car on free from nature won energy according one's need. After a long period of secrecy and research established they definitively their position in the history of science in 1995 and 1996 by means of three patents (US 5,416,391, 5,449,989 en 5,502,354). Influenced by the views of the defender of cold fusion, the researcher Eugene Mallove have they developed an elaborate theory concerning the operation of the ether which they call aetherometics. This theory expanding upon the work of Louis de Broglie and Wilhelm Reich conforms to Dr. Harold Aspden's law of electrodynamics and follows closely the modern Aether Physics model we will discuss in the next chapter (site, peswiki, rexresearch).
   The American John C. Bedini succeeded in the tradition of catching the energy running back in electrical circuits. He studied everything there is to know about Tesla and could thus, partly in association with Col. Tom Bearden, do his inventions in the field of free energy which he called negative energy or back EMF energy. His motor is called the
Permanent Electromagnetic Motor Generator, U. S. Patent 20020097013 and is also already commercially available as a system of saving energy in charging batteries (as explained by T. Bearden, see also U.S.7109671 and 6392370; other patents, a french site with clear schematics; see further the explanation of his work under the heading of rotating magnets below).

Bedini's PEMG patent drawing

   Tesla himself built, so one says, the first electrical car in 1931: he had, about the same way as Moray had done, placed about twelve radio tubes in a small wooden box with a couple of resistors. He inserted a couple of steel pipes in the box as also a six feet long antenna and said: "Now we have energy". With that device he next drove with speeds up to ninety miles an hour a so-called Pierce-Arrow of which he had replaced the engine by an 80 horse power electric motor which he had connected to his little box. J.P. Morgan, the great financier at the time finding out that he was drawing energy from space, was horrified by the entire invention because it would cancel the need for any oil business. According Tom Bearden would Morgan, whose imperium these days is in existence, have seen to it that never again a new Tesla could be of any success. For that purpose he would have politicized educational physics in favor of the industry. Bearden explains that the formulas of Maxwell the way we know them these days factually are written by the mathematical autodidact Oliver Heaviside who in 1880 simplified the tricky quaternion math (see book) which hardly anyone understood, turning it into vector algebra. He detested the potentials and threw away the calculations of open thermodynamic systems, thus limiting the math business to the calculations of importance to closed systems in equilibrium with their environment. By proposing this math, that was further specified by the famous dutch physicist H. Lorentz (1853-1928), is every electrotechnical engineer these days convinced that converting energy caught from outside the system is not possible (see also article). With the Heaviside school discipline is now every free energy invention denounced as perpetuum mobile nonsense. But with the original equations of Maxwell it is possible to calculate the energy running in reverse from outside the system. Tesla was in his days accused of black magic and because of the skeptical comments of the press he received took Tesla after a week his little box out of the car and returned he to his laboratory in New York. How exactly he took the energy from space could he this way not disclose. It was probably radiant energy he drew from space, but it was also known that he was capable of transferring electrical energy radiographically. Tesla was also familiar with the work of his illustrious predecessor Nathan B. Stubblefield (1860-1926; see also site), who for the first time in history in 1892 created a radio-connection based upon the energy he with a coil drew from the earth (see further B. Adamah about this, also talking about E. Gray who neither knew to succeed with his electrical car, the pages at Peswiki and keely.net and the book Occult Ether Physics - Tesla's Hidden Space Propulsion System and The Conspiracy To Conceal It).

Update: In February 2011 a Philippine inventor named Ismael Aviso demonstrates a self-powering electrical car purportedly running on ambient energy the way Tesla did with his Pierce-Arrow.  He uses an antenna that receives energy from signals in the range of 750 megahertz to 1.2 gigahertz. Having tuned his device to the proper resonance, "any signal within that range will be collected to boost the power of the battery".  He names the effect "Fymeg" (FYMEGM) energy, in memory of two of his late friends who helped in the earlier phases of the project. In contrast to the Bedini and Bearden technologies which are high impedance, his technology is based on low impedance and high voltage. Aviso's technology has been witnessed and verified by at least three University of Philippines professors including Dr. Scoto, Electronic and Electrical Professor. Explanation of operation, Video. Peswiki page.

- An invention which reminds one of Tesla's processing of radiant energy is the invention presented by an unknown man giving a demonstration on YouTube. A couple of rods, consisting of an unequal number of elements, which develop a potential from catching radiomagnetic waves, thus make a lamp glow: the so-called Elemental Rod Generator ( video 1 and 2). There are no replications known. The video itself contains too little or unclear information. The rods are catching, so the man explains, neutrinos. Quote: "Nutrino circuit consists of two rods about 3 inches long. The device consists of the two posts, a wooden base, two terminals and a switch. One of the rods consists of 73 elements and the other rod contains 74. The earth is struck by particles from space all the time called nutrinos. When nutrinos strike one of the rods it causes a negative charge to build up. The second movie shows how three Christmas tree lights are producing light from the rods. "These rods put out about 18 watts of power. This device has been used to charge batteries in a cave hundreds of feet below the ground." The invention looks ridiculously simple: there are two metal rods on a plank with a jar on top of them including a switch and two posts. The man giving the demonstration is presumably Don Smith, about whom one says that he would be the inventor and that he in Japan would have approached a company to produce the rods that not, as the video says, consist of 73 and 74 elements, but of the metals in the periodical system of elements, corresponding with those atomic numbers: the transitional metals Tantalum and Tungsten. There is a brochure from a Japanese company named ERR co. who offer the generator commercially (see picture to the right). The rods are 1 cm wide and ten centimeters long. Such a commercially produced solar battery consisting of two rods, as it is also called, generates about 300 watts of electricity. The company also offers heavier combinations with multiple pairs of rods. The set charges up, so the brochure explains, with electromagnetic waves in the wavelengths of infrared up to ultraviolet. In the brochure it is called the Electromagnetic Radiation Receiver (ERR). A patent of this device is not known in the U.S.A. There is an illustration in which the Tesla patent for radiant energy is used as being the principle of the receiver. The rods appear to be working the way the space diode of Moray works, the Moray Valve: a combination of metals which transform the chaotic energy of space into an ordered polarity. There is a translation of the detailed technical description of the operation of the device. The description is singed by the engineer Ben Shuwalts of the Noazarc Research Foundation. Someone with an acquaintance in Japan called the ERR company in 2003. They had difficulties with getting the rods right in production and had switched over to producing the material in the form of film. That would work better. Further nothing was heard of the company. The claim resembles a Mitsubishi patent from 1992 US 5364710, in which from light by means of a crystal of a certain chemical composition electricity is generated. Update. Recently July 26, 2009 Dr. Schwartz (Shuwalts?) introduced a 21 kg heavy 3 KW motionless 'ERR-flux generator' based upon bismuth and aluminium plates with coils in between them. He would like to tell us all about it but has 'obligations that prohbit it' . Verification thus is problematic with this free energy magician (see also under solid state generators, info-page, article, files).


- Engines that with noble gasses in a vacuum in an electromagnetic field excite those gasses with a spark that forces a light pulse which drives a two or more piston engine: Jimmy Sabori's Papp Engine. Jimmy collaborated with the hungarian inventor Joseph Papp (1933-1989) who is the actual father of this approach. With his effect he also invented a canon and a submarine. He acquired in the period 1968-1984 three patents with it: U.S.,3680431, 3670494 en 4428193. Sabori has since 1985 put the basic notion of this principle into practice and further refined it. With the Papp-technology achieved he in this so-called Inert Gas Vacuum Engine about 500 horse power. In a plexiglas cylinder he demonstrates how a mixture of Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton and Xenon is ignited, something which according present day science is not possible. The science of the invention was never fully disclosed when shortly after a, judicial conflict in 1988 between Sabori and Papp, who refused to share with him, Sabori was allotted 49 % of the proprietary rights. Papp passed away next year because of cancer of the colon and all his formulas and calculations disappeared in a mishmash of people fighting about the legacy. Many millions of dollars were invested in him. Sabori appears to own a copy of his writings, he doesn't understand them very well, but he doesn't want to share them with others either. Only the practical know-how of the invention is in fact available. With the improvements of the concept made by Sabori produces the engine, which lacking any combustion needs no cooling, no exhaust gasses either. The motor, capable of driving a car, runs, so is expected, about 10.000 hours on a small canister of the noble gas mixture. 'The machine is broken before the fuel runs out', so explains Sabori. And more than the gaseous mixture for fuel one doesn't need. To do his work, Jimmy consciously turned away from being involved with the government. In his video he offers a good impression of the invention. Different research projects in Minneapolis, Palo Alto and San José in the U.S. are today investigating the Papp-effect for its usefulness. Michael McKubre of SRI International tested it and concluded that there was an overunity of about 10:1 with the Papp-effect. Update. Recently the brothers Bob and Thomas Rohner, former associates of Papp revived his technology using advanced electronics and are making progress in reproducung the machine. They filed for a patent for their PlasmERG Inc. machine and acquired it nov 2009 (site, documentary, Peswiki-pages 1 , 2, 3 & stories, overview).

- Electrogenerators without moving parts (solid state generators). There is a generator consisting of a couple of collector coils around a closed ring-circuit that runs through its kernel. The combination once started with a battery draws external energy from the magnetic field of the earth. In a demonstration unit of about one kilowatts we see how the principle operates on the basis of a rapidly vibrating magnetic field. The concept one is further investigating produces around 2007 still too much heat and appears to be working no longer than an hour continuously. It is of the Steven Mark Free Energy Coil UEC Group (see demovideo, compilation video, his messages, a research report, discussion).
       A likewise concept consists of an iron ring with magnets placed around it. The magnetic flux in the ring is caught by the windings running through apertures in the iron ring. The system is called GENIE (Generating Energy by Nondestructive Interference of Energy). It was developed by a research group led by Mark Goldes named Magnetic Power Inc. who found their inspiration in old and neglected patents. The corporation promises a cheap generator for the entire world that makes no noise and makes it possible for people to get of the grid and live free from fossil fuels. There is a patent request filed and one may inspect demonstration models under nondisclosure conditions.
Lee Felsenstein, one of the great minds who laid the foundation for the development of the personal computer, the PC and the Home Brew Computer Club (info, Wikipedia) corroborates the validity of the claims (patent filed, site, Peswiki-page).
     Next there is the
Motionless Electric Generator of Tom Bearden (patent USA 6362718). The device patented in 2000 consists of a diamagnetic ring of a certain alloy with a magnet at its center with two coils left and right around the arms that with a switching mechanism alternately blocks and releases the magnetic flux which left and right is moving through the ring. The by the flux created current is picked up by two other coils left and right around the arms of the ring. The energy needed to push away the magnetic field at one side is about half the amount of the strength of the magnet itself, but when the magnetic field returns to its original state does that happen with the full power. From space is then the force of the field that was lost replenished. It is called the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The so-called non-linear oscillation theory constitutes the physics basis. It happens when one closes a magnetic loop. It can be compared to what Nathan Stubblefield (1860-1928) discovered when he managed to obtain and use (negative) electric (radiant) energy from the earth caused by the same effect. The exclusion of magnetism outside the system created by the magnetic loop creates an electric field outside the system that can be tapped by a coil. Thus one generates overunity in the MEG, depending the suitability of the material to switch the fields. His system was successfully replicated by J. Naudin. The problem of this system is the proper tuning of the timing needed. The conditions for the functioning of a system feeding itself like this were described by the Stanford engineer Gabriel Kron (1901-1968), the inventor of the so-called negative resistor. Tom closely collaborated with the practical genius John Bedini and is a military trained mathematician and nuclear physicist who in his practice of science as well theoretically as practically belongs to the most erudite and intellectually productive inventors of our days in this field. He is more or less the self-acclaimed extraordinary professor in that science who personally knows many of the free energy inventors and also promotes the development of new players in the field. In the year 2007 he said he was in the last phase of producing his generator commercially (see also: Video, MEG-project, article, the Wikipage about it and the documentary Energy from the Vacuum (part 2). One of Bearden's most popular quotes is: "At any point and at any time, one can freely and inexpensively extract enormous EM energy flows directly from the active vacuum itself."
    There is also a portable version, a simple suitcase generator (image to the left) that produces about ±25 watts of power, in about the way Bearden's generator works, but then without the input energy from the outside. The generator operates on two transformers and a very powerful magnet with a coil and a special electronic circuit harnessing a hi-tech chip to switch the magnetic fields. It also contains a panel of ultrathin graphite sheets, layers of carbon with the thickness of atoms, called graphene. These layers conduct electricity and catch a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is owned by J.B. Schwartz of the Noah's Ark Research Foundation (site, video 2002).
      Historically preceded to these devices four different concepts. Firstly was there a patent from 1871 for a '
Electromagnetic Battery' consisting of two doubly wound and interconnected coils around iron cores of Daniel Macfarland Cook (US 119,825). The coils had to be energized to start a process that was self-generating and by Cook was called an 'improvement in induction coils'. An attempt to replicate this did not succeed in proving the operation of this device.
    Concerning the ring-generator of Stephen Mark there was a second patent of Tesla from 1898 (
US 725,605) called a "System of Signaling" which used two coils in a spiral form that caught the energy of 'space waves that have a speed of, or greater than, that of light'. That energy, once it was captured, could be sent between the two coils.
    Further was there in 1977 an invention of
Peter T. Markovitch which, inspired by Tesla's inventions, with a steel globe on a mast and two coils, a round one around a spiral one, produced a timing difference with a difference of electric potential between the energy from space and the earth so that between the globe and the two coils a current was charging with a capacity of 0.5 kWh maximum. His device was called ATREE (Apparatus To Rectify Ether Energy). The energy of the ether was rectified with it into a usable form of electric energy according the inventor. Different tests of the Washington Research Center proved that the device operated as was said. Markovitch founded the Markovitch Technology Institute. A patent was never acquired out of idealism. Its knowledge was, contrary to the millions demanded by Stephen Mark for his version of this invention, free available for everyone. About further developments and other replications than those of Mark's ring generator we couldn't find any data.
    Fourth was there concerning the winning of energy from wound magnets the technology of two devices, called the "Magnetstromapparat" and the "Stromerzeuger" invented by the german wehrmacht captain Hans Coler in the thirties of the previous century. The first device consisted of a hexagon of six ferrite magnets that were specially wound to the left and the right with copper wire in such a way that also the magnets themselves were part of the circuit. Next was there a switch with two capacitors and solenoid coils which slided into each other. By tuning the system with trial and error could an electrical current be raised of up to twelve Volts from this solid state setup. The "stromerzeuger", the second apparatus, consisted of magnets, copper plates and flat coils that together with a small dry battery of 6 Volts were put into action. The final model of 1937 produced 6 kWh of current, the thousand fold of the input thus. After the war was the inventor interrogated by the British secret service. He had to make a test model under controlled conditions to exclude fraud. That setup was successful, overunity was demonstrated, but Coler could not provide a coherent theoretical explanation for his finding. He said that he had discovered that ferrite magnets demonstrated an oscillation of 180 Hz. In his circuit was the electric potential inductively raised from the oscillation. He spoke of a hitherto unknown source of energy he called 'Raumenergie', space-energy.
The report of the British Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee  (Final Report #1043, Item #31), was initially kept secret but later published. Because of the war and the initial secrecy was the device, despite of the different scientific verifications of before and after the war,not developed any further. In Germany no patent was granted for it because it would concern a 'perpetuum mobile'. Results of modern replications are as yet not known, even though there are indications that the people of the above mentioned GENIE-generator have been inspired by Coler's invention. An experiment after Coler's claims confirms that there is indeed a difference between an electron going from the north to the south and one going from the south to the north through a magnet (see also review, videos 1 & 2, forum en info page, drawings).

- Generators that on their own power or upon an input with overunity operate upon rotating or vibrating magnets. As early as 1879 was there a New Yorker son of a reverent called Wesley W. Gary' (born 1837) wo invented a magnet motor that worked and without any battery input even produced electricity on a basis of permanent magnets. Gary had discovered that magnets have a neutral zone and also that diamagnetic material changes polarity when is passes a magnet field without touching it. Based upon that effect built he with balancing a horse shoe magnet, one fixed magnet and an iron shield that descended from a lever when the magnets were attracted to each other, a machine that kept running purely on the basis of magnetic power. Later on he developed a generator with it that effectively produced an electrical current. He obtained an international patent with it (CA 10,239, US 190,206). This invention was, even though in his time noticed by Harvard professors and MIT-scholars, predominantly neglected in the restlessness of the upcoming new electrical era and is up to the present day not or hardly understood and replicated. His neutral magnet zone is nowadays practically unknown and the change of polarity of magnetic fields is now accomplished by means of electromagnets. What he did falls in the category of the perpetuum mobile of Finsrud: he combined the dynamical relationship between gravity and magnetic power into one continuous movement. It is possible that Edwin V. Gray knew about Gary, because also in his machines can be spoken of a likewise interaction between magnets. In this with difficulty advancing branch of science the ego rules. Everybody has his own thing, and, except for some clubs of inventors and internet discussion forums who each have their own heroes, is there no real school and thus also no formal historical record with which the inventors are familiar. That is evidenced by the restless chaos of many modern findings in this field that all just as original and unique want to step forward, without realizing that the permanent magnet motor was invented a long time ago already. In 2001 was there in the forum of keely.net a replication from the hand of the Canadian Al Francoeur. He succeeded in producing the effect, but couldn' t manage to achieve the control over the forces that is demanded for a smooth functioning of the machine. He continued with a design of his own. Ever since has not been heard of any replication attempt (info page, keely.net-page, replication).
   We found the
for long announced Steorn motor (site, Peswiki page); the OC MPMM-sensation, see above and the PES-wiki page for it, the 440% overunity patented (WO00028656A1) Lutec Electrical Amplifier of the Australians John Christie & Ludwig Brits (website, info, video), the overunity Muller Dynamo of the Canadian inventor Bill (William) Muller (1931-2004) (site, PES, PESwiki, replication project), the with a lot of belief presented Joseph Newman Energy Machine (see video's 1, 2), the Tesla Free Energy Generator of Dennis Lee named the Sundance Generator and his Humming bird motor (website, video), the often replicated and reliable Bedini Monopole Mechanical Oscillator SSG Energizer (see plans for a successful replication) of a research group of upon Bedini based electrotechnics, the to Bedini and Newman related Keppian Scalar Motor of the brazilian scientist dr. Keppe, the Over Unity Pulse motor of Doug Konzen which is practically identical to the one of Bedini (he provides clear instructions at his site for manufacturing such a generator oneself, see also his video), and the Perendev Magnetic Motor of Mike Brady. The replication of the Perendev motor that looks credible and promising on video, is, except for the naked principle thereof, not yet accomplished, the patent request (WO2006045333A1) failed, demonstrations are constantly postponed, the exact shielding and positioning of the magnets is unclear, while units are sold already under license according the site. There is a cloud of obscurity and darkness hanging over the Perendev-project and on the demovideo happens something in the background we cannot clearly distinguish (see video, info page 1 and 2, site, interview and YouTube movies 1 and 2).
    Brady seems to have been inspired by a member of the previous free energy generation of researchers in this field, the inventor Howard Johnson (1919-2008) who appears to be the original inventor of his fuelless magnet motor. Contrary to Brady was he awarded with three patents (
US 4151431; 4,877,983; 5,402,021) among which his invention based upon three banana shaped magnetic elements which as a rotor were positioned opposite a unipolar circular magnetic cylinder composed of separate elements that functioned as the stator. Johnson is a personal acquaintance of Tom Bearden. They are both aged, learned, experienced eminence grise scholars in the field. Bearden has witnessed a demonstration of his version of the selfrunning magnet mill - he saw it running for an hour on his kitchen table - and is also able to provide a scientifically valid explanation with a lot of technical terms by means of which he warns, especially the beginning amateur, against the illusion of a quick success, illusions that enthusiastically are spread by the more commercially enterprising Mike Brady and Dennis Lee in their extensive demonstrations. A lot of know-how is involved concerning precision machining, methods of shielding and more forms of mechanical control in order to move magnets out of their static lock. According Bearden's words creates Johnson a magnetic gate, an entrance fit for magnetic propulsion, by partly separating the magnetic spin particles running from the south to the north and vice versa through a magnet. According Bearden should Johnson be awarded the Nobel prize for his innovation of the theory of magnetism with his theory of Quantum Mechanical Molecular Energy (QMME). Unfortunately were there of Howard Johnson's Permanent Magnet Motor no noncommercial videos available on the internet, only Howard's patents and separate photographs, and Tom himself could, because of a nondisclosure agreement with the inventor, only provide general explanations about the workings of this factually effective and also despite of its long previous history promising free energy motor, this out its own on the restlessness of the ether running motor consisting of static magnets, which without any fuel in principle lasts as long as a magnet will last. Despite of the many attempts to reconstruct the relatively simple looking machine was, just as is the case with the Brady design, end of 2008, nobody capable of doing so. Apparently is March 2009 academic physical conjecture, a vision and the correct mathematical calculation for the division of forces within the Johnson machine missing. 

Update 1: March 21th 2009 though produced a certain "Mylow" from Chicago a working replication of Johnson's Stonehenge design with a simple aluminum disc with u-shaped magnets in spaced groups of three and four on the edge which out of its own keeps turning along an inside placed single horse shoe magnet stator positioned according the so-called 90 degrees rule - Mylow, Peswiki-pagina, Overunity.com forum discussion. Mylow later (5 April 2009) confessed this to be a fake and withdrew his videos. But this he would have said to get rid of all the trouble. April 29 he came up with yet another working replication based upon bar magnets and a double u-shaped stator according HJ's directions. A video analysis May 18 2009 indicated though that Mylow had cheated it with a nylon fishing wire he used as a drive belt while on video it could hardly be seen. No one, including myself, had succeeded in replicating the machine, Mylow was exposed and the majority of researchers was convinced that it concerned a psychopathological case and that there was nothing real about this affair. The only remarkabe thing was that in this period a crop circle appeared with a remarkable resemblance with my own experimental IPMM-cakra rotor, discussed below (Site, Technical analyses door J Naudin, Articles & Patents, Photos, Bearden's commentaries, My Johnson replication).

Update 2: April 21 2010 Brady of Perendev was this month arrested in Europe for fraudulent practices not delivering goods. His website was closed down. These same days a Turkish inventor named Moammar Yildiz demonstates a magnet motor at the Technical University in Delft of which he says to have built about 35 prototypes till now. The concept consists of an inside and an outside stator with the rotor in between.The inner stator has an ascending row of vertical magnets, the outer stator an equally distributed row all around. The rotor has a checker pattern of round neodymium magnets that are 10 degrees out of alignment with the stator magnets. Demonstrating the machine it runs immediately, after releasing a pin with a nylon hammer, at a steady rate of about 2000 rpm with a ventlator propellor to prove its function. Critical minds at overunity.com cautious about a possible fraud, made a spectral analysis of the sound the machine makes and there seems to be few pecent slow down in the course of the demonstation. But this has no definitive meaning since the inventor claims to limit the function himself by means of coils that hinder the machine of wheeling out of control. Since the patent claims no motor function or overunity,  but only an improvement in a magnetic bearing arrangement, at first this designs seemed to be of no interest to this page. But given the demonstration in Delft this seemed to be a political move to obtain the patent. No perpetual motion devices are accepted anymore for patents namely. All in all given the demonstration before an educated audience and an aknowledged patent for the magnet arrangement, a remarkable and promising feat of engineering. To be sure, further testing is required, and replication  stays the only way to be sure we are not again dealing with a scam. Peswiki page , Europatent WO 2009019001 , demonstratieverlagoverunity.com page, previous version at Rexresearch, energetic forum discussionYT Video,

     The most clarifying contribution concerning the with rotating magnets mechanically generating of overunity energy is the video Energy from the Vacuum part 2, in which John Bedini demonstrates his machines and explains how they work on the negative energy extracted from the vacuum ("ether-gas"). He, together with Doug Konzen, is one of the few who are really motivated to clarify to others how to build a generator using magnets, but he is disappointed about the fact that his monopole concept often not really is understood. After 35 years of experimenting he doesn't want to speak anymore of free energy or overunity. In his designs is always input required, the extra energy you get with which one can charge a battery can according him best be described with the term 'Radiant Reactive Power'. That energy can, because it consists of longitudinal waves, not be measured with standard equipment. John always works with electrical circuits to keep his magnets spinning. He also provides with it clear instructions for replicating his inventions (schematics). In summary it amounts according him to the following: "If the machine can produce this Radiant spike before the switch turns on and the spike is reactive and if it is tapped off at the right time and sent to the battery in the proper polarity, it will charge your battery." The most popular 'bicycle wheel design' 'was even replicated by a 10-year old schoolgirl Shawnee Bhaughman in Idaho for a science project in school with which she won a prize. The design is therefore called the 'Simplified School Girl Motor' SSG. The failed replication of the so-called 'Mythbusters' on t.v. who tried to debunk it as a myth, apparently performed poorer than the version of an 11-year old schoolgirl. John Bedini is the great guru on technical matters who is there to help practically everyone on his way with this technology of the future. He catches his overunity energy always in the batteries from which the engine can be run again. Thus he has in his workshop a motor which runs on the same batteries for more than 15 years now. John Bedini is the prototype of the true inventor in the field of free energy, a true reincarnation of Tesla, who with a lot of practical experience and knowledge, but with few words or further pretenses already for decades is producing many types of this sort of machines. He is happy to explain to faithful replicators that the term Back EMF is a term that is used because the patent office accepts it, but that there factually is a difference between the current running backwards in a system and the energy drawn from space by an electromagnetic field. That energy is of a completely different nature, for it is the Radiant Spike that originates from the ether. Only that spike gives overunity, not the back-EMF itself. To use back-EMF, makes a system only more efficient. He calls his motor therefore not a motor but an energizer. The effective Bedini concept for a self-runner with batteries is the one most reliable to replicate. There are numerous examples of it and there is even since 2007 one that runs without charging batteries and is a 99.9 % unity self-runner: the so-called Bedini-Cole Window motor starts up with an empty capacitor which is charged by a by hand started rotating magnet in a coil which guides the back EMF via a circuit to the capacitor that keeps the engine running (video's 1 & 2, discussions, zpenergy-forum). Unity means that the engine keeps running for hours on the input, but in the end does stop. The schoolgirl (SG) design is of overunity, and does charge with extra energy from space.
    The machine of Bedini also has a historical predecessor. That is the so-called
Adams' Switched Reluctance Motor that was developed in 1969: it consists of coils which electromagnetically pulsating by means of a circuit and a battery drove a magnetic rotor. The back-EMF is caught with the circuit, but there has, despite of Adams' hopeful claims been no evidence of overunity upon replication, the used battery runs empty (articles, replication, research, info page). Robert George Adams (1920-2006, picture to the right), born in New Sealand was an old guy of the Bearden generation who was the chairman of the New Sealand section of the USA Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, Inc. The spirit of his work is defended these days by the retired, but in 2008 still living patent-atorney Harold Aspden, who supported Adams by acquiring with him a patent in 1995 (UK Patent # 2,282,708) for his technology. Aspden, who himself also developed a motor and patented it, 4,975,608, maintains a spirited website, where he takes care of the theoretical duties of this technology, complete with an alternative physics model about the ether that was partly evolved on the basis of his work for the patent office. He defends numbers for the Adams motor of 319% overunity. The books he wrote may one download for free from his website (see also Aspden about Adams, articles online, instruction site, plans, Tim Hardwood site, archived site of Adams).
      Scientifically and commercially well advanced is the Hungarian professor Leslie I. Zsabo who with a staff of more than 120 scientists, designed the EBM-generator - energy-by-motion - which operates on 'the magnetic flux from inside and outside the system'. It is a modest 20% overunity machine based upon an 'asymmetrical geometric-magnetic stator and rotor'. He acquired about 20 patents worldwide.
Europatent: WO9318570. The EBM, even though not a selfrunning system yet, is already commercially available in great industrial units of 1.2 -225 Mw that return the investment in about three to four years. Under the condition of strict nondisclosure may one receive initiation in the science (see site, Peswiki-page & video).
    In order to have, without the idea of a Radiant Spike caught in a circuit, still a clear notion of what obtaining overunity from spinning magnets means, are there some examples offered on YouTube. In one of these movies one sees how a couple of ball bearings, a hard disc magnet and a toy magnet in a certain
configuration demonstrate an overunity moment. In another movie one sees how one with an old harddrive for a rotor and a couple of neodymium magnets for a stator can create an overunity moment from a certain alignment of screws on a rotor (replications failed as yet, see also Peswiki). A third one shows the rotor principle of Hamel: a ring magnet, a disc magnet and a steel ball produce a magnetic automoment with which one in principle can build a working generator fashioned to the model of an Egyptian djed. Hamel even tried to build a flying saucer based upon his principle. (video 1, 2 & 3, keely.net-page, description, Mythbuster's test, Leslie Snyder's version, saucer-info, a replication I did myself - part 2). Harry Paul Sprain acquired in 2005 a patent (U.S. 6,954,019) with a spiral setup with which he delivered proof of magnetic overunity with an electromagnet that pushed the stator through a sticky point. He demonstrated that the rotor produces 6 Watt of energy while the stator only needed 3.1 Watt to maintain the spin (page, video). We did some experimental research ourselves and managed fifthly to develop a so-called Intelligent Pulse-driven Magnetic Motor principle (IPMM) which constitutes a combination of Hamel's principle and Bhaskara's and DaVinci's gravity wheels. It is a disc with magnets in a diallel arrangement positioned in the form of a vortex with which a pulse magnet in the middle as good as of its own starts spinning. We have posted a demonstration movie on YouTube (See part 1, part 2, part 3, part 4, and part 5). Apart from the 'overunity moment' as we thus far called it - more modestly stated the 'kinetic effect of the magnetic reaction force' actually -, has as yet no overunity in the sense of a self-running device been found this way, for the Hamel effect seems to be an overunity illusion based upon a self moved (or repositioned) stator. But because the IPMM is such an efficient drive have we not found closure on this project as yet, with us trying different forms of feedback to create a vibrating magnetic loop with the IPMM that is able to challenge the space energy. With that search are we more or less looking for a mechanical translation of what the machines of Bedini and Bearden are doing with the energy of space; some kind of mechano-magnetic circuit that is effective. Thus in later versions we also added MAN to the IPMM label: Magnetic Alternating Non-device, a device not running on a physical input of an indirect natural source of energy like heat, radiation, wind or water, but rather on the direct pulse derived from a mechanical organization of the freely available energy of space with the help of magnets (see my YouTube-page).
   A sixth effect is the
Calloway V-gate effect, based upon the so-called S.M.O.T. (Simple Magnetic Overunity Toy), invented by the Tchech Prachar in 1922: it is an arrangement of next to a rail positioned magnets that make a steel ball roll in a straight line (see picture to the left of US patent 4215330, a web page and the videos 1 , 2 , 3 en 4). Different people tried to create a motor based upon the V-track. These attempts as yet have failed (video).
    To make a real magnetic perpetuum mobile, better stated an ether converter, is something different though. An overunity moment which, as one can observe with Sprain, constitutes the mechanical aspect of Bedini's electronic 'Radiant Peak', delivers extra energy, but a pulse from outside the system is still required to keep the system going, in order to, as Bedini calls it, 'pinch the magnetic flask'. And so it is the same with the 'maintenance' that is needed for Finsrud's perpetuum mobile to keep running. Only when the snake bites its own tail so to say, or when the overunity in a circuit is caught and allowed to amplify itself, with an in fact quantum-mechanical effect, up to a point determined by the construction, do we really have such a machine. The true self-runner in the sense of an easily replicable demonstration model of a self-feeding engine for in one's household or in an educational setting was still not available in 2008. There are promises made of working magnet motors like with the
ALME drive of Achilles Ligeras, but replications as yet (beginning December 2008) have failed and demonstrations have not been fulfilled (see a replication of our own). Gary's neutral zone and his pole-shift effect of diamagnetic materials is forgotten, Bedini has to exchange empty batteries for loaded ones and thus gets far. Steorn and Perendev suggest that they have matters under control, but really replicating their stuff is not a success as yet. The OC MPMM Steorn motor of 4 Jan. 2008 reportedly functioned for seven hours, but has as yet not successfully been replicated. Also replications of the Johnson motor and comparable earlier projects of other purely mechanical inventions like the one of Lee Bowman from 1954 (info), have as yet not led to an undisputed success. Historically is one engaged with magnet motors since 1269, when the hermit and advisor of Louis IX, Peter Peregrinus (Pierre Pèlerin de Maricourt), the teacher of Roger Bacon and the first inventor in this field, next to the well-known compass needle described his special rotating cogwheel opposite to an internal magnet and a moving bronze ball (reconstr.). Also that first specimen has never been seen in operation.
  And thus can science not do much with the lack of unequivocal mechanical proof of the principle of the direct winning of energy in the form of a magnetic mill spinning on the energy that also makes the heavenly bodies spin. After all seems one to violate the induction law of
Michael Faraday (1791-1867) with it that states that the energy won from a moving magnet field in a closed system is equal to the tempo of changes in the magnetic flux; or in other words: one never gets more energy from the machine than one with the pulses has put in. Bearden referring to open systems states though in difficult to follow physics terms that the principle of the purely magnetic engine positively can be explained in a scientifically responsible manner (article, correspondence). Also a great scientist like the Nobel prize winner Werner Heisenberg confirms the possibility. He says: "I think it is possible to utilize magnetism as an energy-source. But we science idiots cannot do that; this has to come from the outside."
  Also in Japan is one diligently engaged and from that we found on YouTube an
overunity setup with magnets attached to fan rotors. Next to that can one view a demonstration of a replica of the wheel of Minato in which with an initial pulse of a wheel with magnets in combination with external magnets a runtime of about 17 minutes is achieved (video 1, 2 & 3, Minato-patents: U.S. patent 4751486 and 5594289). Further was there an example of a commercial Japanese noiseless, magnetic motor bike with a range of 180 km and a maximum speed of 150 km/hour. It is not an overunity self-runner but a hybrid of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet together making up a so-called EV-X7 SUMO super motor which is seven times as efficient as a normal combustion engine - site: Axle Corporation (see also article).
  Special attention in this category is there for the Space Power Generator of the Indian engineer of nuclear power plants Paramahamsa Tewari. Tewari combines his overunity technology with a spiritual vision. Tewari is a theoretically very well versed scientist who in his 200-300% overunity design is working with a unipolar dynamo in which he, contrary to the convention, as well rotates the conductor with a carbon contact brush as the magnet. In his dynamo is there nevertheless extra energy raised. He explains that he with his design cancels the normal resistance of the current that according Lenz's law is true for the changes of current in a generator (see video). He states to that: "only with an alternate theory, which postulates generation of matter from space-medium, satisfactory explanations for over-unity machines can be had". He thus draws his surplus from the surrounding space. Space itself he regards as a continuous, massless fluid with a resistance equal to the speed of light. Electrons he considers to be vortexes of blocked energy in that fluid. It is a view he shares with John Bedini, who also speaks of space as a subtle fluid because of the luminescence that can occur with winning negative energy (see description).

De patenttekening van de Tewari Space Energy Generator

The work of Tewari and also other modern magnetic rotational systems is partly based upon that of an older machine called the N-Generator that was developed by a certain MIT-engineer from Harvard, called Bruce DePalma (1935-1997), a brother of the film director Brian, who was ousted by the scientific community because of his experimental findings. Already in his youth was he fascinated by the typical behavior of gyroscopic movements that also inspired Joseph Newman so much. After a certain spiritual turning point in his life had he undertaken experiments and discovered that spinning steel balls like the ones of a pinball machine were shot over a greater distance and fell down quicker than steel balls that didn't spin. On top of that made also the direction they spun a difference. From that he concluded the operation of an unknown source of energy. He studied in depth the work of Faraday who in 1831 developed the homopolar generator, a disc which spinning in a magnetic field delivers an electric current. DePalma concluded with the addition of his gyroscopic discovery then from his experiments that spinning magnets draw energy from space, from the ether as he said it himself: "The magnet is a window to the free space energy of the Universe." With that finding he developed following in 1978-79 his 400% overunity N-generator. N stands for ninth, for an electric potential to the power of nine. With his discovery, that was also associated with antigravitation, he found no reception in the scientific community that turned its back on him because of his violation of the 'ruling laws of nature'. In the USA was he threatened with his life by people from higher political circles and therefrom concluding that he was no longer welcome in the USA moved he following to firstly Australia and later on to New Sealand. There he died in 1997 because of 'internal bleeding', shortly before an official announcement of one of his machine designs in Auckland. The posthumous demonstration turned out to be different from what DePalma had promised. No overunity could be observed, only extra heat. Without Bruce things didn't work any longer. Was his invention sabotaged? Tewari proved that the principle works and also a retired japanese engineer, Shiuji Inomata, Ph.D., who once worked for the electrotechnical laboratory of the State Department of International Trade and Industry (MITI) in Ibaraki, Japan, proved in 1993 what he calls an incremental overunity effect with his version of the N-machine by him named the JPI (site, book, Peswiki-page, a spiritual DePalma, his appearance in the documentary Free Energy - another inconvenient truth, life description, his patent request).

- The Paul Baumann Testatika generator on the picture to the right is of a separate category. The Testatika is an electromagnetic/electrostatic generator that was evolved in the sixties. It is based upon the electrostatic machine of Pidgeon from 1989. It comprises a circuit raising static electricity with a storage unit and a diode to prevent overload. It resembles the Wimshurst electrostatic machine. There are two discs spinning in an opposite direction that generate the electrostatic charge. One disc stands for the earth, the other one for the clouds. With sensors that do not touch the wheel is the charge further processed in a symmetrical construction for the positive and the negative side. Started by hand keep the discs spinning to produce 300W to 3 kWh of energy depending the size of the machine and the humidity of the air. Baumann states that the energy is obtained from the ether, but others defend that the energy probably is generated by lightly radioactive crystals in the wheel. The technology is kept secret and replications have as yet not been successful. The machine is supported by a Swiss religious community that calls itself the Methernithans. They only want to disclose the technology when mankind is ready for such a source of free energy (see Peswiki info page, research-page, photos, videos 1-5).
   The most renown member of the community who also lived outside of the community and stepped forward with ideas about free energy technology, was the bulgarian genius, the physicist and free energy inventor
Stefan Marinov who lectured at the University of Sofia in the period of 1960-1974. He disclosed that the Methernita community of 500 souls draws all her electricity from the Testatika and that he was also privy to the secret of the operating principle of the generator. Because of his political dissidence was he subject to persecution as a consequence of which he during the cold war different times was forced into psychiatric custody. His investment company Beocraft for the development of free energy technology was on a basis of false accusations harassed by the government and finally closed down. It was an affair about which he in 1992 furiously wrote a letter to the german president von Weizsacker. He demonstrated with many experiments and original findings that there was much that didn't add up with the existing predominant physics theories. He delivered more or less the proof of the relativity of the speed of light in respect of the position of the earth (anisotropicy), and thus the proof of the existence of the ether contrary to the existing opinion. The science magazine Nature refused categorically to publish anything of him, not even an add. He fell out of grace with the scientific establishment. In desperation he jumped purportedly at the age of 66 on the 15th of July 1997 from the fire escape of the university library of Graz in Austria, a fact which is doubted by T. Bearden who states that he was probably killed with a radiation weapon of the KGB considering the fact that the pavement under his corpse was glowing. Marinov himself built among other things a magnetic motor/generator named the Siberian Coliu that delivered proof of the scalar nature of magnetic fields, or the invariant nature of magnetic fields in respect of timespace. In 1997 he published a self-refutation, shortly before his suicide, in which he stated that this machine generated no electricity, was no 'perpetuum mobile' or a self-runner, and that the doubt about Ampere's law he had cherished was unjustified. But, so he stated, the fact that he himself had not produced an effective self-runner, was mainly caused by the the fact that his funds failed in supporting his endeavors. He published articles in Physics Letters, New Scientist and Foundations of Physics and aired his ideas in his own physics magazine Deutsche Physik (further info, articles).

- Generators that with special electrolysis in a water energy cell, produce more energy in the form of hydrogen and oxygen than is put in in the form of electrical energy. It in fact concerns a form of cold fusion as discussed in chapter 1, but then without the need of heavy water and Palladium and Platinum electrodes. A container with water preferably without an electrolyte with placed in it electrodes positioned upon a fuel cell consisting of metal tubes is charged with a high voltage current, after which the startup energy is cut. In the water consequently is created a shortage of electrons which causes an influx of energy from the vacuum of space. By switching the created electric field with a frequency proper to water is that way provoked, as the inventor Stanley A. Meyer calls it, a resonance-effect in the water because of which the hydrogen and oxygen of the water is separated with a greater ease as is achieved under normal conditions of electrolysis. The water thus operates as a catalyst for the production of 'watergas'. In the process the cell typically remains cold, no heat develops. The gas is called Browns gas, a gas with special characteristics when it burns; it is an H2 and O2 mixture that upon ignition turns back into water. In fact the water is not used thus. All the energy won is vacuum energy or negative energy. The process is in fact identical to the method for catching negative energy the way Bearden does with his MEG and Bedini with his electromagnetical generator. Meyer with this effect invented a car that runs solely on water. The secret of that car is to let the gas expand in the cylinder the moment it is created. This is accomplished by a feedback loop by means of which a complicated water injection system was realized with three chambers combining water, ionized gasses and noncombustible gasses. These were mixed under pressure and then injected in a high voltage field. That mixture then expands 1800 times and makes the car run (see video). Peter Lindemann makes a few comments on the explanations of Meyer and explains that it is not as much the resonance of the water molecules that generates the energy, but that it is the vibrating high voltage field which draws the negative energy. Stanley Meyer was a very enterprising inventor who propagated his mission with lectures and projects in which he collaborated with the american army. Unfortunately he was killed in that process on the 27th of March 1998, only 57 years old. One says that he was poisoned. His work has been taken over since then by his brother Steve who started a company to commercialize the technology: the Xogen company. Stanley acquired two patents in 1990: US 4,936,961 and in 1992: US 5,149,407 (they expired in 2007), even though the process of superefficient electrolysis was already known from the korean Tay-Hee Hau who in 1984 acquired a U.S. patent (US 4427512) with it (Google-video, Peswiki page 1 , 2 and 3, YouTube video, technical brief-pdf, site 1, site 2, lecture 1, lecture 2 and video 1 & 2, and the Byron New Energy Wiki A later discovered interview).
   Similar is the generation of heat energy with the help of the
James Patterson Quantum Heater-water cell from 1995, via 1300 nickel-palladium beads per cell as a catalyst (review, US Patent 5,607,563). Patterson's 'cold fusion'-method of electrifying water produces, next to the fact that it after cutting the power remains in operation for 14 hours, also hydrogen and oxygen that can be used as fuel again so that the process in sum delivers tens of times the energy of the input. The ordinary water combined with the beads is evidently the medium for overunity energy.
   Also is there the electrolytical production of ionized steam with the help of the so-called
Joe Cell (2006) of Bill Williams that, consisting of concentric stainless tubes, after a startup process to charge the water for the cell, draws in negative energy from outside the cell, according some orgone energy, and then runs of its own with the production of the mystery vapor (charged hho, hydrogen and oxygen) with the help of which a car can be driven. The cell gets cold when it operates. One also found deviating values with a geigencounter. The principle of the Joe Cell can be retraced to a discovery in 1839 by Sir William Grove who called the cell the 'Grove' Cell. His first version knew electrodes of zinc and platinum that were exposed to two acids separated by a porous ceramic pot (see video's 1, 2 and 3, site en de Byron New Energy Wiki). When Bill announced his invention was he threatened with serious consequences if he would further disclose his findings. Other people propagate the cell now in the Joe Cell Replication Project.
   There is a certain professor
Phillipp Michailovich Kanarev from Krasnodar, head of the Theoretical Mechanics Chair of the Kuban State Agrarian University in european Russia who acquired twenty patents (overview) on a form of weak current electrolysis (0.02 A) similar to that of the Joe-cell. He also speaks of cold fusion and plasma-electrolysis. His electrolysis demands ten times as less energy and delivers a 1000% more energy than is the case with a normal production of hydrogen as a carrier of energy through electrolysis. He uses steel electrodes and also finds that after a startup process the cell keeps functioning when the current is cut and the cell has been 'charged'. From one liter of water the professor produces 1234.44 liters of hydrogen and 604.69 liters of oxygen. He uses 4kWh for the production of 1000 liters of hydrogen. He wrote a theoretical physics textbook with his adapted atomic theory called The Foundations of Physchemistry of Micro World (Internet Version, 28-02-03) in which he discusses his theory of low current electrolysis as well as expounds on the construction of electrolytical plasma reactors. Therein he talks about water as a source of electrical energy. He concludes: "Incompleteness of the existing axiomatics of exact sciences is the main hindrance to fruitfulness of theoretical investigations" he states to that that "space and time are absolute, space, matter and time are indivisible" and that "Lorentz's transformations, the foundation of the theories of relativity by A. Einstein, contradict one of the main axioms of natural sciences: space - matter - time unity axiom, that's why it is unnecessary to search other evidences of flimsiness of these theories." Concerning the water processes he concludes: "It has been found that during the usual and plasma electrolysis of water electric power is converted to other types of energy with COP that is more than one. It has been proved that the fusion of the atoms and the molecules of hydrogen is a source of additional energy." The professor had difficulty acquiring funds from the russian government for his overunity Water Electric Generator of Heat and Plasma reactor, he is still looking for a publisher for his main textbook and is also looking for investors. As an answer to the question what the difference between his process and the Joe-cell would be, replied he in May 2006 that he was conducting his research under contract with a foreign firm. For that reason was he not able to expound further. (summary, video, published books, info page, main article, other articles).

Kanarev's electrolytical plasma reactor and heat generator

    Another water project is that of Denny Klein: the HHO Aquygen company. Without claiming overunity, is with a commercially available electrolytical generator the HHO gas produced which burns far more efficient than any other gas. Thus are more effectively cars driven and is heating and welding with only water and electricity as a source of energy functioning much better. Klein explains in his patent that the HHO gas he produces is qualitatively different from the normal Browns mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. He notices 'magnecules', particles deviating with values out of the normal range. His gas e.g. has the special characteristic of burning without oxygen from the environment with temperatures which adapt themselves to the material that is touched by the flame. That way is he able to process with ease Tungsten, one of the hardest metals around. He acquired three patents in 2004:10/760,336; 2005:11/274,736 and 2007:11/709,603 (See further the work of Andrija K. Puharich, a predecessor, his site, a discussion, his patent U.S. 4,394,230 from 1983, and a patent before him from Stephen Horvath in 1978 U.S. 234,394,230 ).
   Furthermore have we found the burning of salt water which accidentally was discovered in 2007 by John Kanzius. Salt water treated with a radio frequency of 13.56-MHz decomposes and produces hydrogen which burns with a flame of 1700 0C together with the sodium. In the process is chloride gas released (
info, video). The inventor says to have noticed overunity, the ignition delivers more energy than was needed for the radio waves.
     An assorted project is the under the influence of a pulsed DC power input (about 200 - 300 Volt ±10 MHz) dissociating of molecular hydrogen (H2) to atomic hydrogen (H) in a closed vacuum space (0.1 atm.) with a 0.25 mm Tungsten filament for a cathode. The hydrogen which quickly recombines, produces in the process with the exhaust of the cooling water for the pressure chamber more energy in the form of heat than was put in in the form of electricity. The reassociation of hydrogen atoms functions as a kind of pump mechanism for the vacuum energy which is drawn in from outside the system. The process is based upon a discovery of the 1931 Nobel prize winner for chemistry, Irving Langmuir (1881-1957) and is called Moller's Atomic Hydrogen Generation (MAHG). The research after this process is conducted by Nicholas Moller together with Alexander V. Frolov of Faraday Lab Ltd. from St. Petersburg. There is a successful replication of
J. Naudin who most enthused speaks of a very promising development with COP-values of even >10 (of more than 1000%). It is an open source project and the process is still evolving (pes.com, T. Bearden about this process).
    There is also a Japanese inventor called
Zuzuki who with a drop of water and a mixture of carbon created a battery.  And a Japanese company named Genepax lets a car drive for 80 km on one liter of water that separates in usable hydrogen under the influence of a chemical process. Details are unknown. A Patent is filed in 2008 (site, video, forum-page, see also discussion page water cars, video. With this and with the water dripper of dr. Kelvin it may be clear that there is still a lot to learn about the relationship between water (or hydrogen) and electricity.

Update Jan 20011. The italian scientist Andrea A. Rossi of the University of Bolognahas made progress with a cold fusion generator based upon Nickel/Hydrogen fusion named the E-cat, energy catalyzer. He has invented a commercially cheap and efficiënt way of generating energy of around 1 cent/Kwh. The process in which nano powdered and with acid processed Nickel  is heated with H2 gas processed with a catalyst, delivers overunity energy by heat generation: 400 watt input results depending the configuartion in 15000 watts output. A factor of minimally 15-20 times the input. An independent self-sustaining functioning of the machine is also mastered. Radiation is released during the process and Copper is formed. Thus there is a nuclear process going on. Stopping the process delivers no radioactive waste. The machine is led isolated. For 2011 there are commercial plans. There is an European commercial company called Defkalion Green Technlogies with an exclusive license to produce the technology. The motto is: "The time of talking and convincing is over. The market determines." Cold fusion finally seems to become a success. What exactly the theoretical consequences are is not quite clear as yet. Matters are studied. NASA and other big companies are involved. There is in this connection also mention of Muon catalysed fusion and hydrinos or blacklight power as described by Randell L. Mills, in a self-published treatise entitled The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics (GUT-CP). Rossi does not speak about cold fusion, he calls it energy amplification or catalysis. Formally one speaks these days in this kind of cases about LENR "Low Energy Nuclear Reaction".  Rossi collaborates with other italian scientists like Sergio Focardi. The patent WO/2009/125444 speaks of an exothermic reaction (Videos, Youtube 1 , Youtube 2, website, Peswiki-page, Wikipedia, Cambridge Cavendish Lab.)

Update May 2012:
A newly emerging
in Dec 2006 patented (US 2007/0206715 A1) competitor also not speaking of cold fusion in the nickel-hydrogen reaction department and with extremely good credentials, is the CECR process (controlled electron capture reaction) of the inventor Robert Godes, who in  January 13, 2009 founded the Brillouin Company, Berkeley, CA to market his technology. He started in 1992 under the name Quantum Fusion and is around 2012 ready for the market. He makes good science and teamwork without false promises. Contrary to Rossi he uses Nickel as a catalyst to draw energy from the hydrogen. Hydrogen is electromagnetically stimulated to become helium and heat. The Nickel is used as a matrix for that process. The system has been independently validated two times: by the Los Alamos National Laboratories and by Michael McKubre of Stanford Research International (SRI). McKubre was particularly impressed by the consistency of the results and is part of the advisory board of the company. The process is described by the inventor as follows: "A certain amount of protons to hydrogen is converted into neutrons. These newly produced neutrons are then captured by the ions of hydrogen or other atoms in a metal mesh (mostly nickel) located nearby. The neutrons captured produce heat because the new atoms are heavier than a neutron[...]." He states that because he with his energy hypothesis understands the physics of the nuclear reaction process, he has a better control of the technology than Defkalion and Dr. Rossi. He wants to hit the market with boilers for normal households but has also a dry system with greater heat quality of 400'C and more (see also his PES-page, and interview, video 1) video 2).

Update 21 juli 2014: Dr. Randell L. Mills has since 1991 been developing a new energy system with patents worldwide and has reached the commercial phase: Blacklight power: hydrogen is under high tension - 1000 times the normal grid tension - with a low voltage brought to excitation because of which a plasma of so-called hydrino-hydrogen is formed with a lot of light (a new tyoe of 'shrunken' hydrogen in which the electron decays to a lower energy level with emission of photons), that light is converted to electricity with  high-energy solar cells: trains, cars, ships and planes can operate on it, the installation costs are about 250$/kw and the 'fuel' is water, etc... One speaks of a chemical process, but in fact BLP (Blakck Light Power)  constitutes a new category in between nuclear and chemical. The process is validated on universities. The energy density is gigantic, 100 billion watt per liters of water, it is very cost effective, there are little or no engineering problems, a 10 mW generator of a square foot in size is possible. It will become an AC - direct current system. The hydrino's are stable, but chemically reactive and can possibly be bound chemically or else be wasted in the atmosphere. At this point further research seems to be necessary. Mills even speaks of 'dark matter' in this context. The basic laws of quantum physics are broken by this BLP process, so there will be a great revolution in science when this commercially breaks through. See: CNN-introductie, website, PES interview, demonstraties, PES-pagina,News and commentaries.

- Generators that with the help of turbines with holes in them in narrow chambers filled with oil, air or water, win overunity free energy in the form of heat or produce heat a superefficient way. In a modern overunity design is heat, steam or hot water produced depending the number of holes drilled in the rotor of the turbine. The machine is called the cavitation heater. In the process little bubbles are formed which energetically burst with the production of shockwaves that heat the water.
It is also called the hydrosonic pump or the ShockWave Power (SP) generator and was developed by James L. Griggs from Rome, Georgia, USA. His machine can be retraced to the first patent issued in 1979 for this kind of inventions. The device originally was called a Friction Heat Space Heater. The inventor is the american Eugene Frenette (US Patent #
4,143,639, drawing to the right). Later developments were there in the period 1984-1989 with patents of a likewise system of creating heat of two other Americans: Eugene Perkins and Ralph Pope (see overview). The cavity heater on itself is a commercial product these days, but the overunity as claimed by Griggs is debated (video, U.S. Patent No. 5,188,090, site, Peswiki info-page, techn. description). Control research of Jed Rothwell & Ed Wall in 1998 after the version of Perkins and Pope demonstrated a superefficient heat production with values of about 100% COP. No direct overunity thus, but more an ideal transmission of energy. The design of the Kinetic Furnace as the system is also called, somewhat reminds of the work of J.E.W. Keely, who also worked with this principle, and of the vortex-technology of another predecessor, Victor Schauberger. The latter stated that he could raise energy from the quick rotation of air and water. Schauberger's work is at present defended by the German Klaus Rauber (Docu, his Repulsine 'flying saucer', his inventions, Site). Next to Griggs is there also a russian company called Akoil offering VHC-generators (Vortex Heat Generators) for sale that would be more than a 100% efficient. Their machine leads back to the inventions of the Russian Dr. Yuri S. Potapov from Kishinev, Moldova, who claims to have built and sold an overunity electrothermical, on water based generator he calls the "Yusmar 1". This machine would produce 400-1000% overunity. Reportedly the 'cold-fusion' device does not work and investors were not able to retrieve their investments according the documentation at Peswiki. Also earthtech.org tested his device, but couldn't find any overunity, maybe they were doing something wrong they thought (see pictures, description and a test report). But there are also protagonists like members of the russian space program and the physicist Dr. Lev G. Sapogin of the MADI Technical University of Moscow who take the Potapov case for real. They even developed a theory to explain Potapov's machine so states the cold-fusion researcher Eugene F Mallove (who was killed in 2004) in his infinite-energy magazine Vol. 1, No. 2, 1995. The overunity controversy around the vortex method has never found satisfying closure.

    What did turn out to be an effective approach in the cavitation process was the with ultrasonic waves creating of bubbles in heavy water with palladium for the hosting metal. This marriage between the cold-fusion process and the cavitation process stemming from 1989, unexpectedly turned out to be effective in the hands of Roger Stringham, a researcher of First Gate Energies, in Hawaii, USA. He developed what he calls the sonofusion process, which produces twice as much watts of heat than was put in in the form of energy. In a tiny device of 20 grams he produces piezoelectrically in heavy water bursting bubbles that generate about 100 watts of energy with an input of 50 watts.
In the process is also Helium 4 created, a standard byproduct of cold fusion. He temporarily collaborated with the researchers Ruses George and Steve Wolff. Based on his findings he acquired a patent in 2004: U.S.10/925,347. He is also copied by other cold fusion researchers like Xu and Butt of the Purdue University (pesn-page, his research, article, page). The generation of energy by means of sound and by influencing atomic processes was already known from Keely. The hereupon based generation of cavitation-energy with sound isn't something new either. It was preceded by a patent (U.S. 4333796, see picture) of Hugh H. Flynn that was filed in 1978 (and obtained in 1982). He directed from four sides sound waves through a sealed chamber containing fluid metal consisting of Lithium-alloys mixed with hydrogen isotopes in the process of which meanwhile gravity was canceled by means of magnetic pulses. He also made use of the element Deuterium. What he did was thus in fact cold fusion tens of years before Fleischmann and Pons made their heavy water discovery of the electrical version of this cold fusion process.

      In the 70-ties of the previous century was even an engine evolved that ran on the elements Deuterium en Gallium. The american inventor Rory Johnson from Elgin, Illinois, a former employee of the Department of Defense,
had accidentally discovered that Deuterium and Gallium produce energy out of their own under the influence of light. Based upon that he built with the help of magnets and a prism his Magnatron Fusion magnetic motor which in its plasma chamber produced a kind of magnetic bubbles. The technology was that promising that from the side of the government, probably initiated by an OPEC interest group, he was denied to take his machines in production. Johnson, a typical example of the regularly at this front of human evolution surfacing free-energy repression, died a mysterious death shortly after he with all his machines fled from the state in order to escape from the government that wanted to confiscate his materials. He already had a contract with the Greyhound bus company to place his motor in their vehicles. He would, partly out of fear for the abuse of his invention by the arms industry, have patented his invention under another name, but nobody has ever heard of it since. People after him like the electrotechnician Gerald Orlovski who defend his work, maintain a kind of, on a higher intelligence based, ideology that together with the description of Rory's findings (see the picture of his cold fusion concept below) explains that mankind with its electronic, nuclear and chemical pollution is on the wrong path, that the polarity of the earth and the quality of the atmosphere and stability of the climate are influenced by it and therewith also will change drastically and that we for that reason have to switch over to magnetic energy in order to survive living in harmony with the planet (see page, site, ideological manifesto with descriptions of magnet motors and even a spaceship).


- An eccentric we find in the american citizen John Hutchison, doing research on energy from crystals (his Crystal Power Cell) and magnetic levitation. An antigravity effect is named after him. The Hutchison-effect refers to a collection of effects that by the maverick John accidentally were discovered as he studied Tesla's longitudinal waves in 1979. His effect is the result of the interference of radio waves in a limited area controlled by high voltage sources of energy like a VanderGraaf generator and Tesla coils. Hutchison always kept himself far from the established scientific community, he does hardly any systematic research nor writes he articles or reports. He demonstrates in his with old army stuff packed apartment, simply his methods showing how he obtains energy from batteries consisting of ground and compressed crystals he charged with a single high voltage pulse, and how heterogeneous materials like wood and aluminum fuse, deform or levitate under the influence of the fields he constantly manipulates. Because of his method is his effect difficult to replicate so it turned out, also for himself. Just as with many other inventors who behaved elusively or obstinate was he in his work, according his own words, also sabotaged by the american government (see his website, a collection of articles about him, site 1 , site 2 and YouTube videos Part 1 & Part 2 or HQ-1-5).

demo of the Searl Effect on YouTube
- Finally is there is a very promising development that since the sixties of the previous century took place in England. In this line of research is free energy and antigravity combined in one mechanical solution. John R. R. Searl (born 1932, bio info), informally honored with the title of professor, developed with a team of collaborators the so-called SEG, the Searl Effect Generator. It concerns a machine producing energy provoked by rotating magnetic cylinders ('rollers') around a magnetic ring ('plate') consisting of four layers of specially magnetized neodymium, nylon, iron and copper (see videos). The special magnetizing entails the crossing-over of AC and DC current during the magnetization of the 'plate' in such a way that a pattern of many pointed magnetic plus and minus poles is created. Because of this pattern are the likewise magnetized rollers able to move around the ring without touching the plate. A series of coils positioned outside around the rollers are there for energizing the circuit that becomes self-sufficient after a certain period of operation. A russian replication project succeeded in replicating this by radial borings in the plate and rollers and by positioning small neodymium bar magnets in them. Searl developed this process during the time he worked for a company that manufactured magnets. The final 15 kWh generator to be sold commercially knows three of these plates with an increasing number of rollers per ring (see animation). The machine is started up with an electrical pulse that thereafter is no longer required. The machine doesn't stop out of its own unless its magnetic field is disrupted. Depending the amount of energy drawn from the machine is there a certain speed of rotation of the rollers. When more than a certain amount of energy is drawn is an antigravity effect created. Anti-graviity is with Searl a matter of fastly spinning magnetic fields. Searl is also called the father of antigravity. The Searl-effect is possible thanks to precise mathematical calculations according his own system which he calls the 'Law of Numbers'. His books, also carrying that name can be freely downloaded online. With his effect has Searl as the first human being on earth created a flying so-called levity disc also named the IGV, the Inverse G-vehicle. His vehicle is following many of the principles we know of UFO's: the defiance of mach-limits and principles of aerodynamics with speeds of over 10-20.000 km/hr. In the fall of 2007 has in Hollywood been announced a DVD-movie about his work called The John Searl Story (in pdf). Like many other inventors found Searl a lot of opposition from the side of the scientific community, commerce and the government, with ridicule, theft, arrest and imprisonment based on false accusations and other calamities. Despite of these hindrances and a lack of funds appears he as the victor from the struggle and is he about 2007-2008 with his research group in the last stage of commercializing his generator. The commercial company, only hindered by a lack of capital, is called the Searl International Space Consortium - Tomorrow's energy and transport systems. In the end they aspire to create space vehicles that are capable of reaching the moon in nine hours and the planet Mars in two months. The work of Searl is part of the research group called: the Direct International Science Consortium (see also a lecture of Searl on Google video, verification-research, book, support-site, his Peswiki page, an interview over the phone, and the discussions at rexresearch.com; N.B.: his closest collaborators never witnessed the full functioning).
    The Searl principle reminds one of the work of the inventor Floyd Sweet (1912-1995), another acquaintance and contemporary of Tom Bearden and protégée of the 'negative resistance'-genius
Gabriel Kron (page). Sweet, a specialist and MIT-engineer in the field of electromagnetism who was an employee of General Electric, invented the so-called Vacuum Triode Amplifier (VTA): with the help of coils and wound magnets he provoked a vibration of the magnetic field, a 'Motional Electromagnetic field', with the help of which he pierced the natural equilibrium of the forces of the vacuum and thus won negative energy. By the beforehand 'conditioning' or administering of a high voltage current on flat and square Barium-Ferrite magnets with windings of magnetic copper wire in three directions, raised he by means of excitation with the help of an extra coil the negative energy which is cold upon discharge in stead of warm and produces he a whiter light than is normal with 'hot' or positive electrical energy. He describes a overunity of hundreds of thousands percent (!), a practically unlimited source of energy. When the poles of the working device were shorted out there was a bright flash and cold. Floyd engaged Bearden in his research the moment he noticed that the VGA became lighter and colder when more energy was drawn from the vacuum, he needed his theoretical support. There was mention of a distortion of timespace in the device. Upon closer scrutiny proved the antigravitational effect itself more clearly, but Bearden feared that the magnets would explode if they would accomplish more than 90% loss of weight, so fly did the VTA never. The VTA which he also called the Space Quanta Magnifier, Sweet never managed to control fully. Sometimes the process worked, sometimes it didn't or only for a short while and also proved it to operate better in a certain direction (directed at the stellar sign of Leo). From that observation thought Sweet to have delivered the proof that the ether would exist just as E. W. Silvertooth from Washington in 1989 did who, alas very hard to replicate, proved that the earth with a speed of 400 km/sec is moving through the ether (see J. Manning - A New Physics for a New Energy Source). Theoretically is the VTA-affair never clarified, despite of the impressive theoretical treatises and hopeful deliberations of as well Bearden as Sweet. According Bearden it appears that the VTA is a purely negentropic device, a device capable of transforming the chaotic energy of space into usable ordered energy. The 1933 Nobel prize winner Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961, pictured to the right), was the physics specialist in quantum mechanics who in 1943 in his book What is Life? defended the notion of an order that in nature spontaneously rises from chaos. Another physicist, Ilya Prigogine received the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1977 for his contribution in the field of the thermodynamics of systems not in equilibrium with their environment. With his contribution in the field of self-organizing systems he further paved the way for the application of Schrödinger's insight in negentropy in the sense of an ether mill or the vacuum energy transformer. Other names in this context are the founder of synergetics - the science of self-organizing open systems - the physicist Hermann Haken, and the father of this idea, the visionary and inventor, Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983) who said things like "There is no crisis of power in the world, there is a crisis of imagination". The invention with it was by Sweet himself explained in 1988 with a lot of technical expertise in an article named Nothing is Something. The gentlemen Bearden en Sweet contest the correctitude of many aspects of quantum mechanics, of the theory of electromagnetism and the theory of relativity. We define traditionally, in a scientific sense, not only the most fundamental aspects of space, time, electricity and magnetism the wrong way, nor have we a correct understanding of the theory of Maxwell and we are also mistaken about gravity. In this are they up to a certain point supported by the scientific establishment. So said e.g. the physicist Richard Feynman, who in 1965 won the Nobel prize: "It is not possible to understand the magnetic effects of materials in any honest way from the point of view of classical physics." If we think deeper about magnetism, are we quickly positioning us outside the bounds of classical physics in this respect. Exactly how Sweet operated his VTA with his conditioning and manufacturing of the special magnets he did not disclose. He was afraid of publicity because he for a long time especially over the telephone was threatened with his death if he would endeavor further. Shortly before his death, he died of a heart attack, said he that he would be in touch with General Motors for further development, but one has never heard anything about it afterwards. Patents are not known, probably because Sweet's work was an extension of that of Gabriel Kron who was contracted in the thirties by Stanford University. As far as we know is the construction of the VTA described by Michael Watson and partly replicated by at least four researchers who all found self-oscillation and overunity (see an overview of articles, newspage, Bearden's Sweet-page, drawings).
Next to the also inevitable skeptical sites of defensive scientists and people who in their impatience about the progress of this science with the existing disinformation and general ignorance in this field turned out disappointed, were there more inventions and remarkable experiments found on the internet. So were there, next to a Superclassical overunity heat pump from 2001, the so-called Efficiency thermodynamic engine of Ken Rauen (US 6,698,200 ), a car engine running on a created vacuum only on the basis of vortex-technology (The 'Crystal Ion'), and a magnetic vortex machine of Michael Leas - the so-called Magnevex (video 1 and 2), as also other videos of inventions from the far east as e.g. the magnetic motors of Minato, Kawai and Takahashi from Japan and the development in Argentina of Walter Dario Torbay's patented (R2004P103029 20040824) Magnetic Transgenerator, a motor with alternatingly moving magnets around a moon shaped magnetic rotor which displaces the magnetic gate ahead all the time (see info1 en 2, video 1, video 2 en video 3, site en photo's; further a small overview of the above mentioned, an overview page, a research page, an article of Bearden and the essential documentaries). Also is there from Austria a pyramid of metal which with the help of two coils, a self-built capacitor in a copper frame and a magnet, placed in the center extracts AC current from space. It is of Flavio Thomas Trawöger. His invention was replicated successfully in 2006. The man is now under contract and his site and person disappeared before the public eye with it (video, info page, forum discussions). The californian chemist Peter Grandics acquired a patent with a likewise procedure with what he calls 'A DC to RF Converter for the Capture of Atmospheric Electrostatic Energy'. The russian inventor Alexander Golod also acquired patents on energy from pyramids and also the canadian engineer and inventor Edward Gorouvein conducted worthwhile research in this field of pyramidal energy (info). Interesting but less publicized is also the so-called 'electron trap' of the american physicist Lawrence Nelson. With a vacuum tube switching between earth and space he manages to generate energy with which he with 200 watts of power manages to generate about a 1000 watts. He shuns publicity, but appears to have commercial plans. Ken Rauen replicated in 2003 the effect under his guidance (page). Together make all these discussed and further not discussed, and sometimes very recent inventions it impossible to ignore any longer this matter of a possible alternative, direct form of winning energy. For many is there the question of why this technology beginning of 2009 still has not advanced into the energy market. Peter Lindemann offers in an article of 2002 (dutch version 2008) a detailed and educated answer. He speaks of four main reasons, four forces that play a part in this.


- 1) The first is the ignorance and skepticism of the public. The citizen in his ignorance follows the ruling mode of thought and is afraid to drop out of it. If one societally wants to have an acceptable life must one cooperate and adapt oneself. Just like it is with living in a small rural town. The ignorant human being thinks that free-energy devices simply do not work and that it is all wishful thinking and deceit, a kind of belief, especially when it is also about flying saucers and assorted elusive matters. But the conspiracy theories of the defenders of the new energy are not wholly unfounded. They are based upon on true facts, upon real persecution and suppression... It must be said though that this kind of thinking is a poor and superficial presentation of the problem. That way of thinking is not the way to convince the public of the happy tidings. With the resistance of the skepticism and ignorance that denies all allusions to an organized resistance against the new spirit are we dealing with nothing less but a paradigmatic revolution, a turning point in the world mind in which the human being totally has to adopt another mind and course of action. Skepticism in the negative, unhealthy sense, is nothing more than a form of resistance against innovations that is born from petty, narrow minded attachments. With healthy people is it simply the grain of salt, there to prevent being taken by deceit. Of course one must remain critical. But for an attentive person are the signs of an impending change visible all around us, especially in the actual debate about energy and the environment which regularly makes the news. In the end of that discussion will the 21th century undoubtedly look quite different from the previous one, that is a sure thing. Everybody agrees that a change is needed, but the spirit and the science of the new world order the way it will be will not drop out of the sky just like that. We're just not ready for it right away, it is not all at once accomplished, for we have not been educated with a science different from the one we know and thus have we not learned to respond to it with anything else but a stereotyped reaction. There are developments on many frontiers concerning this and who has the overview? As for information is one quickly intimidated by the tremendous restlessness of the elbowing options. And that is only for the new energy matter. The cynic has no patience for it nor does he attach any belief when he is confronted with children's diseases and the isolation and clumsiness of the diversified phenomena. This publication among others tries to tackle this first problem of cynicism and ignorance by soberly, realistically and seriously make an effort to sum up everything available in the field of the new free energy technologies. Next to that are there three more important forces that play a part.

- 2 Secondly are there the vested interests of big business. Another energy system radically changes the economic and societal relations and perspectives so that from the side of the financial sector not much enthusiasm or cooperation can be expected. The international, globalistic defense of capital interests, constitutes the power that led to many a conspiracy theory, but at the same time it is also the power that in the end will be pulling the weight to change the world. The necessity is there already, it is the attachment to the financial advantage that is the stumbling block. Money not only began to replace God, but began also as a capitalistic system to replace the complete of our natural living as human beings in harmony with nature. It is always about control, security and penal justice, especially the legislation against terrorists. Without money nothing works anymore so it seems. But historically is it a known mechanism, the innovation and the societal changes have always been turned against especially the illusion of a prosperity that fails to prove itself as a prosperity for all. The most renown, but in Holland also most repressively treated conspiracy theorist in this field is the in the Netherlands born, but more internationally appreciated investigative journalist
Robin de Ruiter. Among other things he wrote about 9/11, Bush, the dominating families of the big capitalists and the question of the illuminati. He constitutes the textbook case of the anti-globalist who recognizes the evil of the world especially in the corner of big business and its elites. What he states is not completely unjustified, but out of our love for the truth we must say: the fruitive motive has always been the karma, but the dharma of the righteousness one also tries to defend with big business, can not as easily be pushed aside as being a political trick, however compulsory neurotic that defense might be. It is all too easy to conceal therewith the psychic troubles one has oneself with the system.

- 3 The third stumbling block is formed by the politics and the government therewith that has to warrant the national and international security (see e.g.
SECRECY ORDER - Title 35, United States Code (1952), sections 181-188). He who controls the capital flow and the energy rules the world and thus can the energy that is removed from the control of the government not directly be in the interest of the states and the national governments that are associated with the realization and maintenance of economic advantage. In the business of politics where we air our grievances about unjust balances of power is humanity wasting its strength and talents for the sake of partial interests. The general integrity of these partial interest constitutes the problem. Which government would be well-integrated and sustainable? Is governance more that a nice career opportunity for an ambitious person? A sustainable government though is just as important as sustainable energy. What would be the name of such a government on a global scale and who would the representatives be? It is evident that someone with a free energy generator who undermines this entire complex of power is not directly welcome, when many are guilty there is no demand for heroes.

-4 The fourth power is the power of deception. Of course are there always people who play a game with the hopes, the belief and the love of the people and want to sail along with the reality of the novel possibilities. It is tempting to win the favor of the people with double dealing and deceit and lead them into making donations and things like that, before anything concrete has been accomplished. More than good magicians these people are not and because of their fraud move they in fact outside of the law. And that not necessarily has to be a conscious form of deceit. It's not good to incriminate any of the people among the before mentioned inventors and new energy protagonists. Undoubtedly there are different degrees of individual and social pathology one may find among them, even though, it must be said, they all cooperate in the propagation of a real and proven phenomenon. But it is justified here to provide an example of what it should not be. The American
Troy Reed (video), an enterprising inventor, made in the nineties of the previous century a serious attempt at constructing an overunity magnet motor. He drew the attention of the press with his Surge Motor, and acquired a lot of support of even renown personalities like the Hollywood actor Dennis Weaver. He presented a car that would run on his engine without the use of any further fuel or emission. But in the end he had to admit that his project had failed. First to acquire support and next to try to succeed with make-belief is clearly the wrong approach. The essence of deception is first of all self-deception, a failure - pardonable or not - to recognize one's own mistakes. Good science is trial and error, conjecture and refutation. With the way in which Troy Reed believed in himself and thus got entangled in a web of expectations, it all seemed to be no deceit what he had to offer, and no doubt he is a good mechanic, but with the definite negligence of timely admitting his own illusion, and thus his positive guilt of reversing the proper order of succeeding/supporting, have nevertheless many lost their way with him.

With respect for the before mentioned hindrances we nevertheless collectively further have to investigate the new insights in the field of free energy technologies. They need to be understood, implemented and finally instructed. For that we need a systematic approach. Just a few skills, a patent with ingenious or accidental discoveries and some success for the ego will not do. We have to arrive at a coherent vision that is capable of lumping all the mentioned inventions together in a broader societal perspective. Tewari e.g. evolved a spiritual vision in this which he describes in the book Spiritual Foundations and Bearden is also interested in health effects and (secret) weapon systems. In his stories he explains with a lot of reference to existing physics theories and practices what would be all possible with the use of the longitudinal vibrating waves of the space energy that according to him consist of the virtual presence of photons and anti-photons. Except for being commercially available, must the matter also politically, socially and educationally be debatable, otherwise we cannot arrive at control and civilization and warrant peace and progress with it. In the end it is all a matter of making a choice how we in about fifty years want to live without oil and gas and that demands first of all a proper, multidisciplinary, scientifically accountable, perspective we can further elaborate.



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