I Methodical preliminary exercises: an introduction

'With something being contradicted
it is not proven that it is untrue,
just as not being debated
would prove that someting is true.

B. Pascal. Thoughts

Einstein, the ether and relativism

If we want to figure out out the truth about the facts that make up our reality, we have to begin with determining the method to proceed. In ancient India it is called nyâya, which according to the Sanskrit dictionary means something like method, standard, rule, axiom, plan, the right manner, justice, logical argument or inference. In the logic of our planned approach emerges, so as to arrive at the proper inference, an image of reality, a standard way of operating in the right manner. This logic, itself thereto called nyâyika, consists of five limbs:
1 General thesis.
2 Doubt.
3 Counter argument.
4 Conclusion.
5 Summary.

It is of course possible to call for the philosopher R. Descartes (1596-1650) with his method so very much alike, and the philosophers I. Kant (1724-1804) for the duality and G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831) for the idea of thesis opposing antithesis in order to arrive at a synthesis, we may consult S. Freud (1856-1939) for an analysis and F. Nietzsche (1844-1900) for realizing ourselves, but then we are building one house with many master builders. There is after all also the (elder) philosopher W. v. Ockham (1285-1349) who, with his well-known 'razor'-argument, poses the question why we would utilize different elements when a single one would suffice. To prevent a subsequent tumbling over one another of master builders for our filognostic mansion, we first of all, for the first half of part I, limit ourselves to the Vedic vision in reation to Descartes, since he specifically has the method as his subject. And even him we will have to abandon ultimately, since also he, not conversant with it as he was in his time, was incapable of covering the non-western tradition about it prior to him, nor the empirical science after him, however diligent he was. Rationality is something beautiful and good, reason is essential, the method is of great importance, but it is also vital, as he states himself, to be comprehensive in the end. The general thesis is therefore, with having put India first as the oldest culture known to us, that that old culture, as the one master builder, suffices for a philosophical lead to tackle the problems of modern man and to arrive at the filognosy of a syncretic approach of science, spirituality and religion. For, contrary to Descartes, with them, with those Vedic sages, we do find evidence of a respect for scientific facts as the existence of a galaxy in the midst of other galaxies, as also a clear description of the problems we recognize as typically modern. It is of importance to work for a coherent paradigm with which the complete whole of our reality can be properly covered, matters of the spirit and the gross of matter can be done justice, and with which everything and everyone may fit in, so that the person in his full identity is respected.

Since, as the preface points out, we have to link this love for knowledge to a certain order of time if we want to have a life with it, will we also have to involve a physicist like Albert Einstein (1879-1955) because he, as the figurehead of our modern intelligence, promulgated the relativity of the time concept. Let's start with him for exercising the method. According to him, to his conception of E = M x c2 for the universe, the speed of light (c) would be the constant in the dynamical universe of time and matter. Time, according to Einstein and many others who thought to have understood him, is always different and depends on the frame of observation. The correctness of his theory, implies that the absolute value of time computations is illusory and that we, politically, therefore (...) factually can regulate, settle and control the time any way we like. I Newton (1643-1727) would be wrong with his absolute idea of a natural time as the measure for determining our lawfulness of material existence. That would be a position all too deterministic. So be it, but the problem is that we end up with a couple of conflicting ideas if we give Einstein the advantage of doubt in determining what is absolute. Firstly it is so that we might not understand Einstein quite right. Time and space are according to his theory not exactly the same, viz. they do not entirely team up. According his theory there is a difference between the time indicated by an atomic clock that in an airplane flew around the world and the time of a similar atomic clock that was kept in its place. This was tried, and one indeed found a very minute difference between the atomic clocks the way the theory predicted, even though this experiment from 1972 according to some was thus unsatisfactorily conducted that factually no definitive conclusion should have been attached to it (see A.G. Kelly: Hafele & Keating Tests; Did They Prove Anything?). Is Einstein therefore correct in saying that the time of a certain place must be taken relative? If so, is it then really so that this minute difference, with which also astronauts e.g. would have to return home, would justify the difference in time and space we find with the standard time of our civil order as compared to the time indicated by sundials? In China that difference, at the beginning of the 21th century, amounts to some three hours, which in the west of China leads to the civil disobedience of peasants ignoring the imposition of the state adamantly, when they, with a to the local time settled clock, regulate their daily business. When Einstein thinks to have found an exception to the rule of the newtonian link of time and space, does that not factually imply that that connection thereby is confirmed? Is it not folk wisdom, still to defend that the exception confirms the rule? Then why would we have to reject Isaac Newton with his devout, religious and classical respect for the natural measures of time, the way they are for normal people and planets?

It is even worse with the theory of Einstein so fundamental to our modern relativistic mind and for our aversion against especially personal absolutes. Recently (summer 2005) the theory by the italian physicist Maurizio Consoli was questioned, to the occasion of experimental findings in an experiment performed by the german physicist Stephan Schiller in Düsseldorf, on the speed of light which, according Consoni, as a theorist interpreting the data with greater scrutiny and detachment than he did, would not be uniform in all directions, and that it thus would be directional and that therefore there would be a certain order of light, a framework, in the universe. Such a paradigmatic clash after experimental findings had happened before, when a certain researcher named D. C. Miller in 1933 meant that Michaelson and Morly, the physicists who in 1887 initiated the idea of a constant light speed, which Einstein took as a basis for his theory, had made mistakes in working from averaged values to the rotational speed of the earth. Before him Ernst Mach (1838-1916) had concluded that there was no definitive proof for the so-called ether as the fixed frame of reference for a variable light speed in a vacuum. In respect of the measurements of the light speed, which according to Miller differed relative to the position of the earth, the earth nevertheless would move with a speed of eight kilometers per second through a medium that would be something like the ether, the fundamental element in which all scientists before Einstein believed as being the medium in which light would vibrate it's waves. After Miller there were, by Yuri M. Galaev e.g., many more tests conducted with this so-called M.&M.-experiment with varying results. The scientists in 2005, under the lead of Schiller discovering the same type of deviations, therefore could not accept their own findings; they could not believe that Einstein's theory would not be correct which states that such findings cannot be right, and so they attributed the deviations found to systematic error. From a human point of view that is understandable, since the consequences for our presently dominating way of thinking about time and space are hard to oversee.

"...the failure of the world's physicists to find such a (satisfactory) theory, after many years of intensive research," says Dirac, "leads me to think that the aetherless basis of physical theory may have reached the end of its capabilities and to see in the Aether a new hope for the future".

Paul Dirac, the Nobel Prize winner in physics in 1933
Scientific American, The Evolution of Physicists Picture of Nature, May 1963

Concerning the speed of light itself that in its absolute value seems to have dethroned time as being an absolute measure, there is another remarkable issue to take notice of. There exists light that goes three hundred times faster! Scientists think nothing special of it since the end of the twentieth century. How can that be? According to Einstein in 1905, nothing would go faster than the absolute speed of light namely. But light is, ever since it halfway the nineties of the twentieth century was discovered, capable of speeding 1,7 as fast through a special fiber optic cable, and even three hundred times as fast when driven through a gas cloud. The solution to this riddle is there since 1910: the limit of the speed of light is only true for coded light, not for the light itself. The physicist Daniel Gauthier confirmed this remedy for saving Eintein's theory of relativity in 2003, by again stating that according to his findings the limit of the speed of light indeed, so it seems, is true for coded light carrying information, but not for uncoded light. Thus seen, the speed of light is a conditional or apparent constant and not an absolute constant. Depending the medium and the type of light, light may possibly go infinitely fast and thus can Einstein's formula, which builds on a speed limit or an absolute constant of speed in the vacuum of outer space, actually not be correct at all. In respect of normal circumstances on our planet earth, the speed of light may seem constant, but it seems to be so that, in the special circumstances of other conduits and/or fields, we with Einstein are dealing with something that is more a theory of constants than with a theory capable of justly declaring time relative (Einstein himself preferred the formulation 'a theory of invariants'). By and by it offers no surprise anymore that, save for a couple of zealous scientific fanatics, virtually no one understands Einstein. For he, from the perspective of our modern options, does not quite compute.

    The proof is piling up further. A certain physicist Tom Van Flandern states in an article titled The Speed of Gravity & What the Experiments Say: Physics Letters A 250:1-11 (1998): 'Recognition of a faster-than-lightspeed propagation of gravity, as indicated by all existing experimental evidence, may be the key to taking conventional physics to the next plateau.' The effect of gravity goes many times faster than light. And that also is incommensurate with Einstein.
   Another matter of dispute among physicists concerning the speed of light, is the, in 2002 by the internationally acclaimed physicist, author and broadcaster
Paul C. W. Davies, in Australia found deviance in the fine-structural or nuclear constant, akin to the speed of light, which would prove that the speed of light would gradually have decreased in our cosmic ontogenesis. Also João Magueijo (in 'Faster Than the Speed of Light' reasoning in 2003 against the so-called Guth inflation-theory which would explain that effect away) states that, if light in the beginning would have been faster, that that would offer a better explanation for the facts of the as yet maintained theory with the research data found. But the magazine Nature answered his scientific soliciting with the reply that, even though he, with what he offered, had found an explanation for some cosmological matters, he still had no comprehensive solution to offer and that he thus had to be turned down! Was Einstein with all his followers not also today searching for the 'Theory of Everything'? Must we positively accept him then?
     It seems that landed here we are ready for the psychologist who studies the phenomenon of rationalization and repression in association with systems of thought. We are thinking here of the analogy of the analytical psychologist Carl Jung (1875-1961) who, equal to Consoli in relating to Einstein's constants, called Sigmund Freud
(1856-1939), the original psychoanalyst and father of that science and notably a friend of Einstein, himself a complete neurotic. And let us be honest here; is relativism really effective in assuring the progress of mankind on it's way to peace and justice? The atomic bomb and the nuclear power plant that do effectively convert mass into energy, do not seem to succeed in it. Maybe we have to reconsider our dear 'Father of Time', as a preliminary conclusion accepting that Einstein maybe was not correct in every way. Science happens to consist of trial and error, that is the power of its progress.

Doubt the galore thus with the existing relativistic paradigm. One does not have to be a rocket-scientist for that either. On the internet could, in 2005 in in the dutch science forum wetenschapsforum.nl, a lay-discussion be followed between in physics interested enthusiasts arguing about the particle of light. From their guesswork it is evident how impossible it is to understand all the peculiar conclusions of Einstein's theory. Light would also be measurable in photons. A light particle with a base mass of zero would, moving around, be a package of energy, that does have mass. But how could such a package of energy having the speed of light, to which according the theory the particle, heavy of kinetic energy, would endlessly increase in weight, there not be a gravitational effect in the direction of a black hole like the center of the galaxy? (this by the way also belongs to the implications of Düsseldorf). In order to maintain Einstein the particle of light cannot be permitted to have mass, although it has energy. We also learned from Einstein that energy and mass add up with, are equivalent to, the speed of light according to the formula E = M x c2, which then would implicate that we would have energy that cannot be mass and that thus the formula, again, would be wrong. So the dutch pop-group Doe Maar sang: 'E=Mc2...before the bomb drops', at the end of the song with that name. And that is what the lay thinks about it, and in Holland even sings about it.

And they allowed Apollonius to ask questions and he asked them what they thought the cosmos was composed of. But they replied:
"Of elements."

"Are there then four" he asked.

"Not four," said Iarchas, "but five."

"And how can there be a fifth," said Apollonius,"alongside of water and air and earth and fire ?"

"There is the ether", the other replied,"which we must regard as the stuff of which gods are made, for just as all mortal creatures inhale the air, so do immortal and divine natures inhale the ether."

Apollonius again asked which was the first of the elements, and Iarchas answered:

"All are simultaneous, for a living creature is not born bit by bit."

"Am I," said Apollonius, "to regard the universe as a living creature?"

"Yes," the other said, "if you have a sound knowledge of it, for it engenders all living things."

The Life of Apollonius of Tyana,
Philostratus, 220AD.

But it can also be stated philosophically. In the Vedic literatures we know, from the philosopher Sayana, in the Rig-veda verse 1:50: 'Thus it is remebered: you [O Sun] who traverse 2202 yojanas in half a nimes'a'. With S.B. 3.11: 3-10 it then appears that with a yojana of 31 km the light speed of ± 300.000 km/s is very closely described (see Wikipedia). But, o blessed truth, on closer examination of the Vedic reference in that same Bhâgavatam of Vyâsa the yojana in verse 5.25: 1 turns out to stand also for a measure of something like a light year at the scale of the galaxy, at the scale of the so-called s'is'umâra, the dolphin, as the Purâna calls the Milky Way. In other words: the light speed according to a coordinated Vedic vision is variable, depending the frame of reference. As for this frame, for the philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), the two forms of time were enough to speak of the cosmos: the linear and the cyclic movement of the universe. For that sufficed in order to speak of a finite universe, divided in two realms: that of the unchangeable and unique celestial sphere of the ether leading to the cyclic reality of creation, which is perfect, and that of earthly matter, which is characterized by the linear, which is imperfect, is finite. According to René Descartes, picking up on such a division of space with the element of the ether, there is no such thing as empty space, a real vacuum, but only a universe full of interaction, and thus there would never be a constant speed of light measurable, but rather a speed limited by the medium through which it moves. Consequently we see the three hundred times faster light impulse sent through a gas cloud. After Descartes the physicist J.C. Maxwell in 1875, in the first edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, in his respect for his philosophical predecessor, in a blend of science and speculative philosophy, initially described the problematic and mysterious medium of the ether as follows: 'Whatever difficulties we may have in forming a consistent idea of the constitution of the æther, there can be no doubt that the interplanetary and interstellar spaces are not empty, but are occupied by a material substance or body, which is certainly the largest, and probably the most uniform body of which we have any knowledge.' That substance in, or from, space is then that primal state of matter from the stars and planets formed and which is always there in the background as their basis, as one complete whole of potential space-time, as the potency of the ether, the effect of a coherent forcefield the way it already in western philosophy in its operation was noticed by Aristotle: the ether as the formative basis for all in existence. The notion of a relativistic four-dimensional space-time, the normal 'euclidian' space linked to the dimension of time, was defended by Einstein in the Brittanica edition of 1922. But Einstein could not ascribe an absolute value to the simultaneity of occurrences, for he could not acknowledge such an ethereal and absolute, momentous drive, which by Carl Jung e.g. is called synchronicity. We, thus seen, do hence, because of the relativity of the medium, not really know what we are exactly up to, with the speed of light. The results of the measurements are diverging, that is what we are certain of.
  Even Einstein himself who, in facing the alleged constancy of light speed, was credited for having called off the existence of the ether, devised later on a new theory departing from a different concept of the ether (see also
Ludwik Kostro: Einstein and the Ether). He stated in 1920 about the ether: 'There can be no space nor any part of space without gravitational potentials" and next he concluded with: "Recapitulating, we may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there exists an ether. According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time (measuring-rods and clocks), nor therefore any space-time intervals in the physical sense. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it.' (lecture, University of Leyden). General relativity thus implies an ether, but Einstein disagreed with an absolute concept of time with the ether, the way we know it from the dutchman Hendrik A. Lorentz (1853 - 1928), who before him had said: 'One cannot deny to the bearer of these properties [the ether] a certain substantiality, and if so, then one may, in all modesty, call true time the time measured by clocks which are fixed in this medium, and consider simultaneity as a primary concept'. The ether is actually just the empty space we normally know as a limited gravitational forcefield, like that of the sun ('curved space'), the Milky Way (ethereal space or the Force) or the special, not limited and the, according Hubble's so-called red-shift of the light spectrum, endlessly expanding, intergalactic space (the so-called space-time, or the original space or ether - without the time differentiation of the linear v.s. the cyclic time - of undifferentiated matter just after the Big Bang, in Sanskrit to the oldest traditions called pradhâna). Thus seen there are different types of relativistic ether and space. The three main forms of the ether differing by locality as mentioned here are Vedically known as the three forms of Vishnu: Kâranodakas'âyî Vishnu, Garbhodakas'âyî Vishnu and Kshirodakas'âyî Vishnu. With this our primary thesis, that deriving from the Vedic concept of order would suffice, then has been confirmed. Before this Empedocles (490-430 v.Chr.) had said: 'by the aether, the aether divine', but the truth of this element as being essential to the concept of the soul was already acknowledged in the culture of Sanskrit. And now enough about this.

    Considering the community of physicists in denial of a relativistic ether the way Einstein stated it later, it may be concluded that there is a lot of natural physicist's theory in neglect of Einstein, even using his name in the defense of its denial. Einstein was evolving, as it should, with being a good and self-critical scientist, and thus we can accept him in the end, filognostically knowing the error as a challenge for self-improvement. He, not succeeding in formulating the 'theory of everything', had to contend with internal inconsistencies and so we had to after him. Therefore it is also possible that the inability to detect deviations in the speed of light can be caused by the moving along, of the earth, on the stream of energy of the ether. The element of the ether would (according to Descartes) lead to energy vortexes which, just as with something floating down a river, do not result in a relative motion between the ether and the earth, and hence there would not be any effect on the measured speed of light. This is a position defended by people at the edge of science who are often portrayed as pseudoscientists: Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), Viktor Schauberger (1885-1958), Wilhelm Reich (1897-1959) and John E.W. Keely (1827-1898). The latter one wrote in 1893: 'There is no dividing of matter and force into two distinct terms, as they both are one. Force is liberated matter. Matter is force in bondage'. These scientists tried to demonstrate that ethereal energy, or 'orgone energy' as Reich demonstrated to Einstein, even though invisible, is very real (see also J. Medeo). Keeping in mind the modernity of quantum physics also speaking in these terms of indeterminate energy, we thus may ask ourselves what factually real science would be. There is a paradigmatical struggle, but to say what would be true, is for time to tell. Error can be terror (E=M x (T)error2), science and politics are, just like religion and the state, only separated by principle, not in reality. We are warned about error in science and matters of the ego, especially in mathematics deriving from possibly wrong suppositions as the non-existence of the ether or imaginary constants. In the nineties there was e.g. a news item about astronomers who thought to have discovered planets around a star. They later on really did, but at that time the deviation in the so-called parallax of their measurements was wholly attributable to the erroneously not reckoning with the equation of time, which is the consequence of the oblique axis of the earth and the noncircular orbit of the earth around the sun. Thus they made a fool of themselves with a false alarm of significant results.
     The idea basic to this doubt, is that the mathematical angle constitutes a reductionistic way of reasoning in which one is never certain of one's subject, since information was lost in the reduction. The term A in an equation is not necessarily the same as an A elsewhere in the equation or in another equation. That also is relativity and lawfulness. With A unequal to A, a good Apple is not equal to a rotten Apple, the illusion of order as suggested by mathematics finds its end, or, as psychologists like B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) states it: 'one will have to accept the complexity of the universe and admit that not everything can be known or reduced to a formula'.

In what respect Einstein specifically is correct or not in the end, whether the doubt as mentioned and the experimenting is justified and correct or not, certain is that time as the controlling factor - linked to the place in what we call space-time - indeed, logically seen, must be relatively dependent, like also the speed of light depends on the medium through which it travels. And that constitutes a second argument against the politicized relativistic justification maintained for time zones, for instance, in which, to the contrary, time is separated from place. In other words: to use Einstein to reject the absolute of time, next declare that time depends on the frame of observation, or the place, and then again with the same relativistic argument arrange for time zones in which is broken with the dependency to the place, is of course, more than anything else, an exercise of fearful, neurotic and compulsory behavior in running away from Father Time. Lorentz must have been right with his, by us at this site therefore respected, local, true time clocks directed at the ether, and not Einstein with his exception which resulted from the denial of the ether. One may defend that time is absolutely relative and that there is a law of time stating that the time and all that links to it, must be different always because of the element of movement proper to it, but to simply endlessly manipulate time as a dependent variable, must certainly be regarded as being a form of denial concerning the, with all one's matter, being subjected to time as an independent variable, an agent which, apart from being creative and maintaining, is also evidently destructive.

If we do take the criticism serious, the einsteinian fallacy seems to consist of confusing speed with change. Speed is not an absolute value, not as absolute as the sacred three of the basic elements of physics are, viz space, time and matter. The with space-time manifesting matter, offers those three elements, which as the physical trinity of God define each other and cannot be reduced to something else. With the philosopher D. Hume (1711-1776) in An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, they are called extension, motion and solidity, and with Vyâsadeva, akas'a, prakriti and kâla. They constitute each other's condition of existence in creation, one cannot think of one without the other. Time is the life, the movement of matter in space. Space is the distance of time, the phenomenon of gravity, in between material objects. Matter is the electromagnetic effect of the influence of time on the potency of expanding space, the time which, from being linear by the law of reaction, became cyclic and thus, in opposition, transformed the gravity, the primal potency thus, into solid matter (be it not entirely, as evidenced by the inability to find the so-called invisible 'dark matter', which according to S.B. 5.20: 38, covers three quarters of our creation). The entire creation is a permutation of the concepts of time, space and matter. Energy e.g. is an electromagnetic phenomenon of spaced-out matter, the matter which of being purely hot energetic plasma in the beginning, concentrated or condensed into gas and vapor, next became fluid and after that solidified into matter, to which light is then the least dense, the fastest of matter in the beginning. Vedically is it called 'the glance' of the Lord (S.B. 2.1: 31), and in the Bible it is, in Genesis, said that there was light in the darkness. Space is the gravitational phenomenon which sets the limits, either to matter in the form of stars and planets in curved space - the ether we cover with our radios, or to the Milky Way in the ethereal space we can see with our naked eye in the celestial sky, or the cosmic time-ball of expanding galaxies as we may see with a telescope as grouped together in the primal realm of time space, where one does not really find actual matter yet, but just the energetic potency for it. And also time we thus know in three, just like space and matter: the linear movement of the primal substance as we find it in the expansion of the cosmos, the movement of the matter which, opposite to that, spins around, mutually attracted in a galaxy, and the movement through space-time of the 'timeless' but living soul, figuring as the 'no-time' of time consciousness, which constitutes the negation of matter, and which, false in identification, with the inauthentic person forms an ego. Space, the relative phenomenon of gravitation, is the ether; matter is the electromagnetic manifestation, and time is the life of it all. That is the physical basis of a factually perceivable complete whole for all our arguments.

"Thus he then classified living creatures into genera and species, and divided them in every way until he came to their elements, which he called the five shapes and bodies, aether, fire, water, earth and air."

Xenocrates on the life of Plato          

    As for Einstein's erroneous supposition it is, as thus envisioned, the speed that changes, like everything subject to time. That is the law of time: the change is the absolute, not that what changes. The change stays the change, even though it changes, just like space or ether stays the space or ether, even though situated elsewhere, and in the end matter also turns out to be absolute, not in its temporary form, but as an electromagnetic phenomenon of energetic contraction, without which the first two carry no meaning, even when it is as thin as light. Something apparently invariable and constant, like a quasar for instance, constitutes an illusion: it some time found its existence and will, by the law of time, some time cease to exist, and thus is not absolutely existing. Therefore, no, Einstein, even though we accept his being committed to the relativistic ether, cannot be the lead for a responsible philosophical plea for a certain order of time. We must build on the absolute of time, the absolute of change existing as the eternal life of all matter in space.

     Reasoning methodically consequent, the counter-argument here, to the doubting of the absolute of time at this point, says that declaring time relative and dependent still not excludes the absolute reality thereof as an independent variable. Or, as dualistically Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) would say: time for itself, unknown as it is in its full glory - according to also the french philosopher Henri Bergson (1859-1941) - is factually not in need of your existence to exist itself, while time on itself, the way you live it as an experience of being - discussed then again by the existentialist Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) - essentially has no real grip on it, despite of all politically and pragmatically inspired manipulations. That time, lived and controlled, implies only, as known from Hegel, the realization of being estranged, when one has to abide without the scientific virtue of validity and reliability, the way it manifests itself in the modern arbitrariness of standard time since the French Revolution with its failure of time reform. As a conclusion time thus, axiomatic, as already defended by the oldest culture of India as an independent variable, is an absolute of change and a determinant of the ether, as a form of God, our general thesis, and the doubt concerns then the self-determined conditioning order with it, which is naturally relative and possibly of a good or bad quality we can discuss.

Summarizing the general thesis of filognosy then amounts to time as an independent godhead, force or order, that since the days of yore, the way we know it from India, is present as a, for the creation, maintenance and destruction, all-determining factor in our lives. The antithesis of relativism concerns the pragmatical need for a knowable, existentially livable, controlled time, we have to consider as being relative. Facing the two positions of the natural absolute of time and the cultural relative maintained thereto, we thus arrive at the insight that we are dealing with a paradigmatic matter which compares to the classical difference between geocentric and heliocentric thought. First we thought that we according Ptolemaeus (87-150), with God and Jesus on earth, were the center of the universe, and then we thought, since the bravery of Galileo Galilei (1564 -1642) who to the ideas of Copernicus (1473 - 1543) contested geocentric Rome, that the sun was the center of the universe, and thus found our new era of scientific enlightenment. With the progress of astronomy we next discovered our place in the galaxy, and now, being tired of the politically divided and quarreling - but still predominantly - heliocentric oriented sciences with their compensatory relativism, it seems that with us taking seriously the differences of the light speed that in inconclusive experimenting were found in the absence of a conclusive paradigm, we, together with the sun indeed are moving through a medium called the ether. May the Force be with us; for we have now arrived at galactocentric thinking, the new paradigm for the 21th century, which defines us as being moved by an all-powerful force that controls as well the earth, the moon and the sun as the rest of the stars, a force moving us in the galactic whirl about the black hole in the center, the mountain Meru of Vishnu and Brahmâ, the eye of the universal storm created by the holy and absolute Force, the Force of the Absolute of Galactic Cakra (cyclic) Time which in its operation is known as the ether, the first effect in creation (Brahma Sûtra Adh2.P3: 1-7). The evolution of the ether is by sage Vyâsa described as follows: 'From the identification [of the ego] with the darkness of matter of the transformation to that mode the [first element of the] ether was developed with its subtle form and quality of sound, which is indicative of both the seen and the seer.' (S.B. 2.5: 25). In S.B. 11.15: 19 he then states that the Lord must be considered the personification of the ether and, in S.B. 3.5: 32, that the ether may be considered the symbolic representation of the Supersoul, the local of God, who impersonally is known as the Time. Relating to the concept of time he then states (S.B. 3.26: 34): 'The activities and characteristics of the element of the ether accommodate for the room external and internal, being of all living beings the field of activities of the vital air, the senses and the mind.' According to him the ether thus refers to both the 'timeless' self of the consciousness of time and to the time-bound reality of the outside world. So there is, also in consideration of the spiritual department, therefore a relative ether.

'For a truly joyful and auspicious human work to flourish,  man must have the capacity to climb from the depths of his attachment at home up to the ether. Ether here stands for the high flight of the high heavens, the open real of the spirit.'

Martin Heidegger, 'Treatise on human thought'

With this paradigmatic shift we, thus methodically proceeding, are thus faced with the counterargument leading to the conclusion that says that the order of time now can be discussed in its paradigmatic qualities and effects. Like geocentric thinking proved to be inferior to heliocentric thought, now heliocentric thinking the same way may be inferior to the paradigm of galactocentric thought in unfolding the knowledge, in this and in the next sections, of our filognosy concerning the order of time with the ether. For it is that new paradigm that counts with a (circular) movement of the stars, the earth and the sun through the - and let's stress this again - from the Vedic culture thus already known basic element of the ether (kha or akas'a), which represents both the forcefield of the galaxy, the primal space-time, and the local order; the forcefield that possibly - but not necessarily - results in the variations in the light speed found in the different experiments, and about which Einstein around 1920 said that he, in 1905, had passed a somewhat too radical judgement. When with that discussion, and supported by scientific experiment, next the entire problem of modern man is summed up and comprehended, we thus have succeeded in our methodical purpose and have arrived at a new paradigm for the twenty-first century, a paradigm which resets the world culture to its classical values, and cures (post-)modern, estranged man from his bewildered state.

'Therefore I thought in 1905 that in physics one should not speak of the ether at all. This judgement was too radical though as we shall see with the next considerations about the general theory of relativity. It moreover remains, as before, allowed to assume a space-filling medium if one can refer to electromagnetic fields (and thus also for sure matter) as the condition thereof.'

                  A. Einstein in 'Grundgedanken und Methoden
der Relativitätstheorie in ihrer Entwicklung dargestellt'  


See also: references


2- The Order of Time: structure of the content

If we want to discuss the qualities and effects of the order of time methodically, we, as was stated in the preface, must, being syncretic out of loving the knowledge, from the filognosy, pay attention to science, as also to spirituality and religion. Syncretic thinking is the essence of the concept of gnosis, thus teaches us the classical spirituality of Christianity. The internet-encyclopedia (en.wikipedia.org) states that gnosis, to the authority of Gilles Quispel (1916) - an authoritative dutch researcher of classical and christian gnosticism - as a characteristic of religious movements, is counted as the 'the third component of western culture', next to reason and belief. Next to greek philosophy and Christianity also the gnosis, which we in a Christian sense know since the second century, would have contributed considerably to the culture of Western Europe. 'Reason rules the domain of truth and wisdom, theology, rules the domain of piety and obedience' says B. de Spinoza (1632 - 1677) in his Theological-political treatise, to which he rejects the mutual obligation of the two, but we, filognostically, from our love of knowledge, defend that reason and belief are mutually obliged, knowingly in the gnosis in which dissection and principle, or analysis and spirituality, constitute the bridge between science - the perspective which methodically uncovers the truth and in wisdom detemines which fact and paradigm would be of importance - and the art of the person (the theology) of religion, which strives for piety with the political representation of the populace which democratically enforces obedience. With us linking the concept of gnosis to the Vedic culture, we thus, without losing ourselves in this or that gnostic tradition, or finding ourselves compromised by it heretically, will unfold here a world view in which all culture finds its reconciliation. The gnostic person is typically described as someone who seeks to know God, on an intimate basis, by the pursuit of self-knowledge or by the nurturing of self-awareness; the filognostic person, or filognostic, then is the one who is of love for this from the point of view of Vedic truth. Filognosy as a form of gnosis is, contrary to the western classical view of gnosis, not secret, even though, on the Vedic ground of the succession in aso-called paramparâ, a personal transfer of the love for knowledge is considered conducive and advised, and is it surely also a matter of great importance to be in respect of a certain confidentiality and discretion concerning the science of the person. It is not polemic or anticlerical, it is based on all kinds of scientific facts and is of belief, on the basis of the Vedic tenet, that human recollection and the ability to acquire and process knowledge always falls short and that therefore scriptural authority is needed. Contrary to classical gnosis there is thus no propensity for anarchy, but positively a certain degree of docility there concerning a certain original person of spiritual authority, viz. the philosopher of philosophers Vyâsadeva (±3200 B.C.), the Indian who in the West sometimes is denounced as an anonymous, because his name would stand for a collection of sages who each on their turn would have assembled the Vedic verses. Even though he indeed incorporates the unification of the entire field of philosophy and religion, the evidence for the denial of his name is to our opinion inconclusive though, just like there is neither sufficient evidence of the so-called arian invasion of India that would position the source of Vedic civilization more outside of India and closer to us. On the contrary, it is more the Vedic civilization that invaded the West. But, concerning the Vedic culture, it is a critical docility we work with. That culture from the Far East not adopting at it's face value, but still simply and unequivocally with a certain lead being absorbed, does take place then without neglecting us as being Christians, Muslims or other minded believers and thinkers. So it can, for one person, take its effect very traditionally hindustan-like, while for an other person it may be more a nice and inspiring philosophical exercise, as it, for even another one, may entail an enrichment of his of her spiritual and political life. It is envisioned that none of our talents and forms of association of living scientifically, spiritually and multi-culturally believing, is lost in recognizing Vedic science as a source of inspiration and root of human civilization. The doctrinary effort of the filognostic world view, as unfolded at this site, concerns partly the opposing of all possible kinds of falsification, or false unification of the ego, whether it concerns the falsification of class-consciousness, political consciousness, religious consciousness or the more scientific forms of arrogance, narrow-mindedness and estrangement. By the, with this postmodern restart, of gnosticism therein having envisioned a constructive spiritual reconciliation of science and religion, there for each of the three holy subjects of science, spirituality and religion mentioned - which respectively deal with the facts, the principles and the respect for the person - is a duality which thus at this site results in a division of six sections. These six sections correspond with the in India used darshanas of the six classical philosophical views there are to counter the human propensity for falsifying the I-awareness of the soul and thus also of a certain order of time with the ether. The nyâya of the logical approach in India, was translated into the methodical/structural philosophical considerations of this section. The vais'eshika of the more atheistic indian mind of unification was translated into the figures and terms of sober natural science. The sânkhya of analytical philosophy was translated into an analytic section focussing on art. The yoga of finding absorption was translated into the spirituality of developing a certain abstract ability. The mimâmsâ of the culture of rituals was translated into personal and religious considerations, and the vedânta culture of the commentaries was translated into the spirit of political reform. These visions thus have in common 1) a continuing self, 2) a workload, 3) liberation in service, and 4) a culture of reference. The identity and integrity of filognosy is hence described in six aspects, about the way the empiricist D. Hume (1711-1776) divided knowledge his way (see further the definition).

Thus it may, as stated in the preface, be clear that this linear presentation, as one would need for a book, carries in it's wake a causal suggestion that one must relativize: in reality one thing does not follow as closely another thing, for reasons of which the interface at the index-page of the site knows a more intuitive setup. A book and a site, reasoning from a beginning to an end, thus constitutes, the way it is set up here on the basis of a classical division - and thus being valid, a perfect illusion of causality; an illusion not in the sense of being wrong, but an illusion in the sense of being an exclusive line of reasoning. With the elements given, there are more possible lines of arguing. So reasoned Auguste Comte (1798-1857), the father of positivism precisely obverse to the above substantively described filognosy that looks more like the one of Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), which goes from the esthetic to the ethical, to the religious. According Comte one arrives from the theology of the person, lawfully through the metaphysical stage of principles and the abstract of 'nature', at the sober positive stage of the factual reality, that on itself knows no origin or purpose anymore. But the law of life and time has more causal directions thus than the lines of Comte and Kierkegaard. As we already indicated in the preface, the end namely, in the cyclic nature of knowledge, makes for another begin again, and constitute also, the way back, reasoning from the end to the beginning, the order found in an intuitive arbitrariness, and the argument dissipating from a nucleus, as in a tree structure, equally valid forms of progressing in causal reasoning. It was the greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 v. Chr.) who, concerning this, in his Physics discriminated four different types of causality: to the substance, like in 'the bronze precedes the bronze statue', to the determining form, as in 'the form of a horse is essential to all horses and the cause that we name them thus', to the doer, like in 'the artist constitutes the cause of his creation', and the causality of the norm, as in 'I stroll for my health and that is the cause of my strolling'. In Vedic logic we find all these four forms of causality back in the form of the purusha as the soul, the essence of the person of the creation, who in creation precedes the ego as the substance thereof, in the avatâra, the god who assumed the human form and thus liberated, in kâla as the doer moving, creating and conditioning everything and in dharma, the norm of the necessity of the justice of God constituting the cause of the piety and the pious person of knowledge. This way also filognostically it is not so easily said that (normative) just the religion or the dharma leads to the science of the spiritual person, since the other way around the purusha or the (original) person of knowledge himself again is also the cause of it, according to the illusion of the (substantive) causality that we here adhere to in a linear sense. So also the avatâra is there time and again as a tree of knowledge from which (formative), like from the index-page of the site, sprouts all philosophy, spirituality and religion with Him as the stem and kernel, and is also the impersonal of the spirituality there relating to the time factor kâla that, as employed in the isolated articles of this site, constitutes the (constructive) cause of the intuitive way of learning. A striking example of, more symbolically in this case, reasoning backwards in a literal sense to what for others would be the beginning, is offered by the renaissance painter, inventor and scientist Leonardo da Vinci (1542-1519). He, as a principle combining the esthetic and the intellectual motive in an inventive way, habitually, just like some eastern cultures, wrote and read his books, sentences and words backwards, with which he on itself did not cover the double sense of the ambiguity of the four causal lines of reasoning of course. Another example one can observe in movies which sometimes begin with the denouement, with flash backs, and double plots, or are cut in a mix of their episodes, as if it concerned, like in the movie Memento of Christopher Nolan from 2000, someone with a deficient short-term memory who does not even know the order of time anymore.


Contents of part I: the factual

The first of the three basic dualities of filognosy concerns the rational method versus the empirical science, to cope with the facts of life. One speaks of methodical science: first one makes up one's mind and next one engages in an empirically responsible fashion. In this department the agnostic element is stronger than the gnostic one. With reason and the experiential data we herein gradually arrive at the basic attitude and structure facilitating a, more to the principles directed, spiritual life and a society more conscious of the person. The agnostic basic attitude of being open and neutral to, or else staying skeptic, as in modernity is defended by the biologists T. H. Huxley (1825 -1895), Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and the philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), can, in her servitude being just as commendable as the other visions, more or less be considered a precondition to arrive at essential, filognostical, knowledge or knowledge of the complete whole. It was also Plato (428-347 B.C.) who, as one of the first greek philosophers, by mouth of Socrates (470-399 B.C.) in allegiance to this principle of science in his discourse The Defense of Socrates, managed to state that he was only sure not to know. It was that honesty that resulted for Socrates, as an early Christ of philosophy, in a cup of poison, because he, spoiling the young with it, thus demonstrated that the power of rule, in spite of their pretenses, actually also did not know, and thus was less wise than he who did know this.


Contents of section 1a: the method.

The method thus, firstly, consists of the charter as is described on the previous page in which we get acquainted with the doubt, the division, the complexity and the completeness as principles of systematic proceeding.

Directly thereafter, on the basis of our general thesis that we can manage perfectly departing from the Vedic concept of order, we arrive at the division of this site, of which these last paragraphs are a part and of which the elements later on will be subjected to the method. With the method we need to draw a plan of action in order to investigate, as good as we can, all possible aspects to our problem - to have for us, responsibly, a sustainable life with the ether. After having clarified this we must, methodically seen, also introduce the dialectical approach. For the dialectical nature of the game of questions and answers, in order to enliven the knowledge, is not just a fundamental principle of the philosophy we know from Socrates and Plato, but is also a fundamentally Vedic principle of questioning and answering in relation to the spriritual authority. In the Bhagavad Gîtâ (10: 32) Vyâsa by mouth of Lord Krishna states that it, as for him, is all about the identification of Him with the dialectics of all argumentation. Simply said is, as far as he is concerned, the person properly respected with a socratically responsible game of questions and answers. Also the entire Bhâgavata Purâna, the Krishna-bible of the Hindus, also called the S'rîmâd Bhâgavatam (as from now indicated with S.B.), consists of a frame story presented dialectically. Less monologues, more conversation is the holy message here. To put this then first in the presentation of a site that, in answering to a general call for knowledge, inevitably time and again tends to monologues and discourses, we present thereto some correspondence which, self-initiated or not - as an email-exchange, was written in response to the internet presentation of this knowledge. The knowledge at this site has also found it's existence in response to what through the internet was presented. It is for that reason that sometimes acute themes as aids and what could be seen in the cinema or in the political arena prevailed over more academically demanded themes.

Thereafter follows a page which to the point answers the most obvious questions and answers concerning the order of time as a game of social interaction, a game with which we are able to respect the person in his different positions in life (see also the GameWiki for this). Next to that is there on the site also a page with vacancies where different suggestions are offered for serving as a volunteer, to be also oneself of service with the filognosy.

As a direct result of those, classically understood, dialectics, to complement this first section of the site, the social definition must be offered. What is the use of all knowledge brought together here if we cannot find our fellow man with it in the first place? There is for that reason concerning this subject a decided consideration on a page separately, dedicated to what we actually think of ourselves as social beings.

The content of the Order of Time in a cultural sense is in general terms summarized at this and the other introductions to the different sections. All are given a synopsis at a page with six dialogues in which to the content of the different sections the most important issues to remember are regurgitated. For a quick orientation to the content-matter one can best begin with this 'level one' by reading these pieces first and just then study the separate articles. The introductions naturally have a more general character and offer as a preparation for the specific studies per chapter a broader reference concerning the present-day and historical societal views and people. The site itself was more or less intuitively at the same time from the different sections diffusely build up - as it were chiseled out - and can so thus one step at a time be read, just like one does when one gently sits down into a hot tub.

Relevant links:

- Quantum Aether dynamics Institute by Jim D, Bourassa: the present day revival in modern physics concerning the ancient ether. This site presents the Aether Physics Model as the third great breakthrough in science after Dalton's Atomic-theory and Einstein's Relativity Theory.

- Modern Theories of the Ancient Aether : a collection of articles by maountain man graphics site.

- Anti-relativity.com: A careful examination of experimental evidence for and against special relativity.

- The Neutral Center and the Aether Spectrum: This file describes a long standing view of how aether creates and sustains all matter and energy manifestations.

- Zero-point energy: tapping energy from the ether with devices. The troubles of scientific progress; see in this respect also Equinox: It runs on water.

- Rethinking Relativity: by Tom Bethel: 'the speed with which the force of gravity propagates must be at least twenty billion times faster than the speed of light'.

- Gary Novak,The Truth about Relativity: 'Relativity is religion, not science. Physicists admit there is no logic to it. No logic; no science.'

- Carel van der Togt (site): Stellar Aberration and the Unjustified Denial of Ether (Pdf)

- Ivrvin Laszlo: founder of the Club of Budapest, wrote the book Science and the Akashic Field: An Integral Theory of Everything posits a field of information as the substance of the cosmos. Using the Sanskrit and Vedic term for "space", Akasha, he calls this information field the "Akashic field" or "A-field". (see also videospeech)

- Neutrinos Prove Einstein Wrong: 'this proved relativity wrong, because the neutrinos could change into other types while traveling at the speed of light.'

- Yuri M. Galaev, Two papers (pdf) on ethereal wind and ether drift.

- Tom Van Flandern: The Speed of Gravity &endash; What the Experiments Say: Physics Letters A 250:1-11 (1998) This article states: 'Recognition of a faster-than-lightspeed propagation of gravity, as indicated by all existing experimental evidence, may be the key to taking conventional physics to the next plateau.'

- Albert Einstein: Ether and the Theory of Relativity an address delivered on May 5th, 1920, in the University of Leyden.

- Albert Einstein: Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper, Analen der Physik 17 30 june, 1905 (pdf-file). English: On the Electrodynamics of moving bodies.

- Albert Einstein: Relativity: The Special and General Theory, Einstein's own popular translation of the physics that shaped our "truths" of space and time.

- Albert Einstein: Space-Time - his article for the Encyclopedia Brittanica in 1926

- (anonymous) Imminent falsification of Special Relativity? Article at ZPenergy.com.

- C-ship: Relativistic ray traced images: relativistic site about the Lorentz-contradiction and the dilation of time.

- Does Time Fly? Critical article on relativity and time in general by Antti Roine, January 15 - December 10, 2005, published in hypography science forums.

- Hafele & Keating Tests; Did They Prove Anything?

- Harry Collins: What's wrong with relativism? (April 1998) - Physics World - PhysicsWeb

- Laughing at the emperor: An education in theoretical physics today is an obstacle to thought outside the box.

- M. Consoli and E. Costanzo, The motion of the Solar System and the Michelson-Morley experiment (pdf-file, 26 Nov. 2003).

- Michaelson and Morley: On the Relativity Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether. American Journal of Science. Pdf-file of the 1887 paper presenting the results of the Interferometer experiment.

- The ether rediscovered!An article that resurrects the Michaelson-Morley and others, interferometer experiments. It mentions Consoli and is also suggesting that Einstein nicked Lorentz's theory. New Scientist Magazine April 2005.

- Relativity Challenge: Reveals mathematical mistakes in Einstein's Special Relativity equations. It also presents the theory of Complete and Incomplete Coordinate Systems.

- Relativity in islam: site claiming that the Quran has defined the speed of light, time dilation, black holes and wormholes.

- Paul Davies: the website of the australian astrobiologist claiming the light speed would have decreased in our cosmic history.

- Wikipedia on the Michaelson-Morley experiment.

- Physics - On Absolute Space (Aether, Ether, Akasa) and its Properties as an Infinite Eternal Continuous Wave Medium.

- Aether Theories - Collation of Modern Scientific Theories of the Ancient Aether

- FAQ on the Aether

- R.F. Norgan: Einstein was wrong: the Aether Theory argument

- Alfred Evert Ether Physisc and Philosophy: an alternative view considering evrything a transmutaion of the one original element of the ether.

- Vortical Dynamics: ether - page on an alternative view of vortexing ether explaing why there is no effect measurable in the lightspeed and cyclic time is essential to it.

- James Medeo, A dynamic and substansive cosmological ether (pdf).

- Prof. Fred L. Wilson (Rochester Institute of Technology ) Science and Human Value: Aristotle. Page at Windows to the Universe, describing the inference of ether as known from Aristotle.

-  Aristotle- on the soul

- Matter is made of waves: site building on the concept of the aether.

- Space-time distortion proven: a recent article by Anushka Asthana and David Smith, Sunday April 15, 2007 in the The Observer.



- M. Consoli, E. Costanzo: From classical to modern ether-drift experiments: the narrow window for a preferred frame. Physics Letters A, Volume 333, Issues 5-6, 13 December 2004, Pages 355-363.)

- Einstein's 1912 Manuscript on the Special Theory of Relativity.

- Ludwik Kostro: Einstein and the Ether: Although Einstein is widely credited with abolishing the ether concept, he actually introduced a new relativistic ether in 1916, developing the idea in his later works.

- Articles in the dutch newspapers:

- Sneller dan de Lichtsnelheid: Artikel over Daniel Gauthier door Anouck Vrouwe 29-10-'05, Algemeen Dagblad.

- Een tegenwind steekt op voor Einstein. Een artikel door Martijn van Calmthout over Maurizio Consoli en het experiment in Düsseldorf. Volkskrant, 6-08-2005.

- Albert Einstein gaf de natuurkunde in 1905 met de beroemde formule E = M x C2 een geheel nieuw fundament. Maarten van Rossem naar aanleiding van het Einsteinjaar 2005. 7-1-2005, Het Parool.

- Lichtsnelheid. Prof. dr. C. Dullemond preciseert het argument van de koppeling van de lichtsnelheid aan de fijnstructuurconstante. 24-08-2002, NRC-Handelsblad.

- Albert Uiteraard (Gerectificeerd): artikel van Martijn van Calmthout met een overzicht van Einstein's leven en zijn ontdekking van de relativiteits-theorie. 22-1-2005 de Volkskrant.

- Wat was de vraag ook al weer? Martijn van Calmthout schrijft 11-06-05 in de Volkskrant over de moderne fysica die de weg in feite kwijt is.

- Een grote bek tegen Einstein en de rest. Een artikel door Martijn van Calmthout over de strijd van de natuurkundige João Magueijo tegen de lichtsnelheids-mythe. Volkskrant, 17-5-2003.

- (Dutch) Vincent Icke: Niks Relatief: Het verhaal van een gelovige die nogmaals probeert de theorie van Einstein uit te leggen. Gepresenteerd in korte bondige taal en even zovele formules. Uitgeverij Contact dec 2005.


To the images:

- The two half photos of Albert Einstein with a question- and exclamation mark: Einstein more or less clear in his mathematical formulations, but questioned by the research findings.

- 'A Philosophers Lesson' ca 1766 Oil. The painting pictures the lesson of the philosopher always referring to the truth of the measurable universe and it's time. It is of the englishman Wright of Derby (Joseph Wright), 1734-1797 (see further discussion).

- The Vishnu between the planets signifies the relationship between the vedic point of view and the modern concepts of a threefold relativistic ether

- The little ball in the net is an image of the earth making a curve in space-time; the earth is thus also influenced by the primordial ether.

- The collage underneath shows Ptolemeus of the geocentric paradigm, left, with Galileo Galilei on the right who brought the heliocentric perspective, and in the middle Vishnu, the Hindu-godhead who is seen as Vâsudeva, the god of the celestial sky, with the cakra in His hand, the order of cyclic time as one of His weapons. Ptolemeus refers to it, Galilei found in his truth his support and Vishnu himself stands for the classical truth of the galactocentric way of thinking.

- The whorl is a photo of a galaxy in cosmic space.

- The two pictures of the sage show Vyâsadeva, the Lord of Philosophy, who first together with the writer of this takes up the gnostic cross: the burden of a conscious confession to a certain order of time, with next Vyâsa with the Cakra-symbol representing the order of time and the six points of view of the filognosy as the result of the order found.

- The first bust is of Aristotle, the second is that of Socrates.

- The photo underneath is of Swami Prabhupâda, the preacher of vaishnavism, the vishnu-order, in the West, seen conversing with his godbrothers from India.


Click on the white triangle below to proceed with the interface for this section, or use the red arrow button to have a linear walk through the site.












Site Info | Site Index | Charter of Order | Discussions | FAQ | Vacancies | Guests/Friends